Universidad Pablo Olavide, Seville (Spain) firstname.lastname@example.org
Time banks (TB) have spread all over Europe as part of a wider expansion of alternative economic spaces. Much of the existing literature has focused on UK and US time banking models, while TBs in other regions have been overlooked. This article contributes to a feminist understanding of time banking in a crisis context and, specifically, analyses possible particularities of Mediterranean TBs on the basis of case studies from Emilia Romagna (Italy) and Andalucia (Spain). The article describes the methodology and introduces the perspectives of Feminist economics before outlining the origins and development of time banking initiatives in both countries. The second section explores the history and characteristics of the selected TBs, presenting details of their objectives, member motivations and exchanges. The discussion analyses the contributions of Feminist economics to the understanding of time banking, and the conclusion provides a summary of the most important ideas.
To cite this article: Lucía del Moral-Espín (2017) ‘Sharing is Caring: Mediterranean Time Banking in a Multidimensional Crisis Scenario’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 2017 Volume 21 (Summer) 33-50 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2017.007
This paper develops a new classification of non-bank currency systems based on a lexical analysis from French-language web data in order to derive an endogenous typology of monetary projects, based on how these currencies are depicted on the internet. The advantage of this method is that it by-passes problematic issues currently found in the literature to uncover a clear classification of non-bank currency systems from exogenous elements. Our textual corpus consists of 320 web pages, corresponding to 1,210 text pages. We first apply a downward hierarchical clustering method to our data, which enables us to endogenously derive five different classes and make distinctions among non-bank currency system and between these and the standard monetary system. Next, we perform a similarity analysis. Our results show that all non-bank currency systems define themselves in relation to the standard monetary system, with the exception of Local Exchange Trading Systems.
Ariane Tichit*, Clément Mathonnat*, Diego Landivar**
To cite this article: Tichit, A., Mathonnat, C., and Landivar, D. (2016) ‘Classifying non-bank currency systems using web data’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 20 (Summer) 24-40 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547. http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2016.002
The Mutual Credit Currency System, this most radical form of endogenous money, was evaluated and compared with Marx’s Commodity-Money-Commodity requirement. A simple simulation of a small community closed loop economy was used to illustrate the functioning of two types of mutual credit currency systems. The first, dubbed MCSG, behaved according to the specifications and recommendations of the mutual credit currency system’s founding fathers, Riegel and Greco. The second, dubbed the Komoko Monetary System, or abbreviated to KMS, was a sub-type of the mutual credit currency system with some additional restrictions and one additional liberty. The main restriction introduced in the KMS was that it almost exclusively supported the exchange of only newly produced goods and services. The liberty introduced is forecast-based credit allocation. It was shown that the MCSG has an inconsistency that could potentially lead to instability. The restrictions applied within the KMS can provide a remedy for this potential flaw, while at the same time rendering the KMS compliant with Marx’s requirement. The monetary control measures applicable in KMS were discussed, which guarantee robustness and stability and make KMS a true complement to the official fractional reserve banking.
Timebanking provides an empirical entry point into a better understanding of the discursive strategies used to legitimize alternative currencies. Theoretically this study uses a post-Marxist perspective, particularly the work of Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe. Methodologically it uses the mixed methodology of a corpus linguistics approach to critical discourse analysis to examine the websites of 334 timebanks in the United States. Findings include identifying how ideas of strengthening community and social bonds are used by timebanks to construct discursive antagonisms to capitalism. Contributions of this study include extending Laclau and Mouffe’s work on radical political participation to J.K. Gibson-Graham’s conceptualization of economic difference. This study also demonstrates how a corpus linguistics approach to critical discourse analysis allows for deeper understanding of counter-hegemonic discursive strategies used by alternative economic exchanges. Suggestions for future research are provided.
Julie Steinkopf Rice
To cite this article: Rice, J. (2014) ‘A Counter-Hegemonic Discourse of Economic Difference: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Timebanking in the United States’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 18 (A) 1-10 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2014.001
by Mayumi Hayashi. Japan’s Fureai Kippu (‘Ticket for a Caring Relationship’) refers to mutual support networks of members of all ages, targeted at providing care for older people through exchanges of time credits, sometimes supplemented by cash payments (‘time-banking’). This has attracted increasing attention as a potential contribution to the ‘Big Society’ with an ageing population. However, despite its pioneering role and scale, relatively little is known about the details and outcomes of Fureai Kippu, and meanwhile simplistic and optimistic generalisations predominate. This article, using historical analysis and empirical evidence, seeks to address these gaps by examining the origins of Fureai Kippu, its early expansion, post-2000 slowdown and responses. It considers the practical contributions and varied benefits potentially offered by the system, along with its operational difficulties. The conclusion is that Fureai Kippu is so complex that not only is evaluation difficult but also no universal panacea can be expected from it.
To cite this article: Hayashi, M. (2012) ‘Japan’s Fureai Kippu Time-banking in Elderly Care: Origins, Development, Challenges and Impact’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 16 (A) 30-44 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2012.003
This paper presents some key and advanced statistical indicators of time bank participation. Unlike printed community currencies, time banks record their exchanges in databases. Such transaction data enables researchers to evaluate member participation in these networks across time. Nonetheless, there is very little published scholarship employing time bank transaction data. Examples from a U.S. time bank are provided. The suggested indicators are intended to encourage coordinators and scholars to study these networks. Coordinators who track their systems can intervene as necessary. Scholars researching individual time banks can use these metrics to facilitate comparisons of multiple cases in order to better assess the efficacy of time banking.
To cite this article: Collom, E. (2012) ‘Key Indicators of Time Bank Participation: Using Transaction Data for Evaluation’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 16 (A) 18-29 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2012.002
A social enterprise Spice has pioneered a new method of time banking that works with public services in an innovative way. Spice uses time banking as a ‘means to an end tool’ to promote active citizenship, reduce welfare dependency and ultimately reform public services with co-production. This article briefly examines current time banking practices in the UK to set the scene for a discussion of Spice’s approach when applied in Social Housing. Whilst in its early stages, the approach demonstrates some success in increasing participation and improving both individual and community well-being. This is an exciting new use of community currencies to catalyse public sector reform.
Ruth Naughton-Doe Volume 15(2011) Special Issue D73-76
To cite this article: Naughton-Doe, R. (2011) ‘Time Banking in Social Housing’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 15 (D) 73-76 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2011.025
This study focuses on the only existing time banking initiative in Sweden – TidsNätverket i Bergsjön (TNB). It explores the organization’s: 1) challenges, 2) achievements with regard to empowering its participants and creating social capital, as well as 3) if these can be attributed to TNB’s use of time banking. The semi-structured interviews and studies of documentation that were carried out in 2008 have been supplemented with additional information derived from the author’s personal experience of being a member of TNB. TNB has faced problems concerning the way that the time credit system functions as well as regarding a lack of long term participants, time shortages and segregation among some of those who partake. TNB has empowered its participants and has fostered an increase in social capital, something that can probably partially be explained by its use of time banking. The paper is concluded with some recommendations as well as some general thoughts on the future role of time banking within the Swedish welfare state.
To cite this article: Molnar, S. (2011) ‘Time is of the Essence: The Challenges and Achievements of a Swedish Time Banking Initiative’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 15 (A) 13-22 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2011.002
Findings from a qualitative study of Time Bank members from the first Time Bank in New Zealand are reported. Using focus groups, this study identifies benefits of Time Banking in terms of physical, human, social, and cultural capital. Unlike previous research, this study explores Time Banking in a relatively affluent community thus allowing us to understand why those from other populations may participate in Time Banking. This study also identifies a range of obstacles that may prevent individuals from fully utilising Time Banking and may hinder the full development of individual Time Banks. Finally, a number of recommendations for practitioners are discussed.
To cite this article: Ozanne, L. (2010) ‘Learning To Exchange Time: Benefits and Obstacles To Time Banking’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 14 (A) 1-16 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2010.002
To cite this article: Devitt, K. (2009) ‘Josh Ryan-Collins, Lucie Stephens and Anna Coote (2008) The New Wealth Of Time: How Time Banking Helps People Build Public Services’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 13 95-97 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2009.008
This paper draws out key conclusions from a recent research project into a voluntary sector time bank in the Welsh Valleys. The aim of the research was to explore the structure and organisational issues of time banks in relation to the development of co-production. Such an analysis attempts to make clear how time bank development fosters the values of co-production as is claimed by research and literature on time banks. The argument in this paper is that whilst time banks can be set-up for a range of purposes, not always tied to co-production, the practices and ideas embedded in the time bank mechanisms do gradually develop the values of co-production. However this is a slow process and requires a successful, initial time bank pilot project to encourage further support for expanding the practice. For those who advocate the development of co-production this paper provides information of time bank development which can support their efforts to promote the idea within the public sector.
To cite this article:Gregory, L. (2009) ‘Change Takes Time: Exploring Structural and Developmental Issues of Time Banking’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 13 19-32 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2009.003
In 2007, the Dutch municipality of Landgraaf requested an investigation into whether a community currency could support its anti-poverty policies. The literature research assembled empirical data on scrip, LETS and Time Banks. Their effects were evaluated against a set of specific goals: poverty relief, provision of care, social integration and return of long-term unemployed to the labour market. Complementary currencies have still to prove themselves on all objectives, and the last one is particularly hard to achieve. However, for the most part, the systems being investigated have not been set up in a professional way or with longer-term finances available. With these prerequisites in place, and a formal, trustworthy organisation taking the initiative, a complementary currency could still be a useful policy instrument. A Time Bank-like construction would work best, with a professional broker and a limited working area.
To cite this article: van Kuik, M. (2009) ‘Time for Each Other: Working Towards a Complementary Currency Model to Serve the Anti-Poverty Policies of the Municipality of Landgraaf, the Netherlands’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 13 3-18 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2009.002
Community currencies have been put forward as a grassroots solution to the problems of social exclusion and the need for active communities, and are gaining policy support. LETS has been the most common form of community currency in the UK for the last 10 years. Time banks (based on the Time Dollar idea from USA) represent the next generation, providing service brokering and equality of labour to overcome many of the obstacles faced by LETS. This paper presents the first research into time banks in the UK and reviews their origins, growth and development, and their ability and potential to tackle social exclusion. The reciprocal learning from LETS to time banks is discussed, along with possible future development paths for community currencies. Time banks have been successful in attracting members from socially excluded groups, and have become established in mainstream health and community development settings. Remaining obstacles include the need for sustainable funding, to grow and widen their scope, and for policy changes to provide a more supportive framework.
To cite this article: Seyfang, G. (2002) ‘Tackling social exclusion with community currencies: learning from LETS to Time Banks’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 6 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2002.002