Classifying non-bank currency systems using web data

This paper develops a new classification of non-bank currency systems based on a lexical analysis from French-language web data in order to derive an endogenous typology of monetary projects, based on how these currencies are depicted on the internet. The advantage of this method is that it by-passes problematic issues currently found in the literature to uncover a clear classification of non-bank currency systems from exogenous elements. Our textual corpus consists of 320 web pages, corresponding to 1,210 text pages. We first apply a downward hierarchical clustering method to our data, which enables us to endogenously derive five different classes and make distinctions among non-bank currency system and between these and the standard monetary system. Next, we perform a similarity analysis. Our results show that all non-bank currency systems define themselves in relation to the standard monetary system, with the exception of Local Exchange Trading Systems.

Ariane Tichit*, Clément Mathonnat*, Diego Landivar**

* Clermont University, Auvergne University, CNRS, UMR 6587, CERDI, F-63009 Clermont Fd. Email: ariane.tichit@udamail.f; Clement.MATHONNAT@udamail.fr; ** ESC Clermont, 63000 Clermont-Fd. Email: diego.landivar@france-bs.com.

Keywords

non-bank money, text mining, web data, downward hierarchical clustering, similarity analysis

Article Tichit pdf

To cite this article: Tichit, A., Mathonnat, C.,  and Landivar, D. (2016) ‘Classifying non-bank currency systems using web data’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 20 (Summer) 24-40  <www.ijccr.net>  ISSN  1325-9547. http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2016.002

The “commodity – money – commodity” Mutual Credit Complementary Currency System. Marxian money to promote community trade and market economy

Samo Kavčič

Šercerjeva ul.26, 4240 Radovljica, Slovenia. E-mail: kavcic917@gmail.com

Abstract

The Mutual Credit Currency System, this most radical form of endogenous money, was evaluated and compared with Marx’s Commodity-Money-Commodity requirement.  A simple simulation of a small community closed loop economy was used to illustrate the functioning of two types of mutual credit currency systems. The first, dubbed MCSG, behaved according to the specifications and recommendations of the mutual credit currency system’s founding fathers, Riegel and Greco. The second, dubbed the Komoko Monetary System, or abbreviated to KMS, was a sub-type of the mutual credit currency system with some additional restrictions and one additional liberty. The main restriction introduced in the KMS was that it almost exclusively supported the exchange of only newly produced goods and services. The liberty introduced is forecast-based credit allocation. It was shown that the MCSG has an inconsistency that could potentially lead to instability. The restrictions applied within the KMS can provide a remedy for this potential flaw, while at the same time rendering the KMS compliant with Marx’s requirement. The monetary control measures applicable in KMS were discussed, which guarantee robustness and stability and make KMS a true complement to the official fractional reserve banking.

Keywords

Mutual credit system  , Commodity – money – commodity, Cash flow forecast, Currency circuit,  Monetary control,  Endogenous money

Article kavcic pdf

To cite this article: International Journal of Community Currency Research 20 (Summer) 41-53. <www.ijccr.net>  ISSN  1325-9547. http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2016.003

2012 Special Issue: Thirty Years of Community and Complementary Currencies

Bringing together 17 new research papers from around the world, this special issue celebrates thirty years of community and complementary currencies, and assesses their impacts, potential and challenges. Edited by Jerome Blanc. View the papers individually, using the menu above, or download the whole issue here. IJCCR 2012 Vol 16 Special Issue Complete

Editorial Thirty Years of Community and Complementary Currencies   Jérôme Blanc D1-4
Historical accounts in the U.S.
Democratizing Money:  Historical Role of the U.S. Federal Government in Currency Creation  Saul Wainwright D5-13
Selling Scrip to America: Ideology, Self-help and the experiments of the Great Depression Sarah Elvins D14-21
Tax Anticipation Scrip as a Form of Local Currency in the USA during the 1930s Loren Gatch D22-35
theoretical issues
Community Currencies as Integrative Communication Media for Evolutionist Institutional Design  Makoto Nishibe D36-48
A comparison in transaction efficiency between dispersive and concentrated money creation  Nozomi Kichiji and Makoto Nishibe D49-57
Does Demurrage matter for Complementary Currencies?  Hugo Godschalk D58-69
Economic activity without official currency in Greece: The  *  hypothesis Irene Sotiropoulou D70-79
shortcomings and achievements
Sustainability of the Argentine Complementary Currency Systems: four governance systems  Georgina M. Gómez D80-89
Moral Money – The action guiding Impact of Complementary Currencies. A Case Study at the Chiemgauer Regional money.  Christian Thiel D91-96
Solidarity economy between a focus on the local and a global view  Krister Volkmann D97-105
Stroud Pound: A Local Currency to Map, Measure and Strengthen the Local Economy  Molly Scott Cato and Marta Suárez D106-115
Local exchange trade systems in Central European post communist countries Jelínek P., Szalay Zs., Konečný A. D116-123
An Empirical Study of the Social Effects of Community Currencies Hiromi Nakazato and Takeshi Hiramoto D124-135
CC Coupon Circulation and Shopkeepers’ Behaviour: A Case Study of the City of Musashino, Tokyo, Japan Ken-ichi Kurita, Yoshihisa Miyazaki and Makoto Nishibe D136-145
A two-marketplace and two-currency system: A view on business-to-business barter exchange  Melina Young D146-155
prospects and projects
Emerging trend of complementary currencies systems as policy instruments for environmental purposes: changes ahead? Hélène Joachain and Frédéric Klopfert D156-168
Trophic currencies: ecosystem modeling and resilient economies Marc Brakken, Preston Austin, Stephanie Rearick and Leander Bindewald D169-175

Local Exchange Trading Systems in Central European post-Communist Countries

This paper gives information about Local Exchange Trade Systems in the region of former Czechoslovakia, Poland and Hungary. The transition to a market economy proceeded in different ways in these countries, but similar histories in the last century (communism under Soviet influence) led to only small differences among the countries in the level of motivation and power of their civil societies – and subsequently, in the vitality of LETS circles. In the Czech Republic, the first LETS circle was established in 1999; however, none is active at present. Similarly, in the Slovak Republic, out of 10 to 15 LETS circles formed between 2000 and 2005, only one works at the present time. LETS in Poland developed in the early 90’s but soon declined even though a few groups are still active today. LETS in Hungary was very passive, but there have been new signs and initiatives since 2004.  The possible reasons for such LETS developments in the so-called Visegrad countries are also discussed in this paper.

Jelínek P., Szalay Zs. and Konečný A

To cite this article: Jelínek P., Szalay Zs. and Konečný A. (2012) ‘Local Exchange Trading Systems in Central European post-Communist Countries’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 16 (D) 116-123  <www.ijccr.net> ISSN  1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2012.018

IJCCR 2012 Jelinek

2011 Special Issue: Complementary Currencies: State of the Art

IJCCR 15 (2011) Special Issue (Section D)

Edited by Noel Longhurst and Gill Seyfang

Comprising 15 papers from researchers and academics at the cutting edge of complementary currency development, this special issue represents a powerful consolidation of the state of the art in this field.

View the papers individually, using the menu above, or download the whole issue here.

IJCCR 2011 Complete Special Issue

Editorial

Yet another moment of truth? David Boyle D 1-3

Theoretical Issues

Classifying ‘CCs’: Community,complementary and local currencies’ Jérôme Blanc D 4-10

On The Money: Getting the message out John Rogers D 11-16

Regional Reviews

Complementary Currencies in Germany: The Regiogeld System  Christian Thiel D 17-21

What Have Complementary Currencies in Japan Really Achieved? Yasuyuki Hirota D 22-26

Alternative Exchange Systems in Contemporary Greece Irene Sotiropoulou D 27-31

Complementary Currencies for Sustainable Local Economies in Central America Erik Brenes D 32-38

Community Currency Progress in Latin America (Banco Palmas) Christophe Place D 39-46

L’Accorderie and Le Jardin D’Échange Universel (JEU) in Quebec Mathieu Lizotte and Gérard Duhaime D 47-51

Currency Innovations

Kékfrank to boost the resilience of locality Zsuzsanna Eszter Szalay D 52-56

The SOL: A Complementary Currency for the Social Economy and Sustainable Development Maries Fare D 57-60

Building Local Resilience: The Emergence of the UK Transition Currencies Josh Ryan-Collins D 61-67

A Report from Vermont (USA): The VBSR Marketplace Amy M. Kirschner D 68-72

Time Banking in Social Housing Ruth Naughton-Doe D 73-76

The Colours of Money: Artmoney as Community Currency Mark Banks D 77-81

Complementary Currency Open Source Software in 2010 Matthew Slater D 82-87

L’Accorderie and Le Jardin Universel (JEU) in Quebec

This paper compares two of the most successful community currency systems in the province of Quebec, Canada: l’Accorderie and Le Jardin d’Echange Universel (JEU). The paper compares their founding principles and organisational structures, and their mechanisms and mediums of exchange. While the former is quite well-institutionalised and attempts to operate professionally, ‘within the system’, the latter is a volunteer-run initiative with more ambiguous status. The paper attempts to evalute their impacts, where data is available, and concludes that while both exchange systems have their pros and cons, a definite advantage for l’Accorderie is that its legal status gives them better access to funding which ultimately permits them to offer their members the means by which to form an economic strategy in both the informal economy, through exchanges, and in the formal economy, through microcredit and participating in the monthly buyer’s group. This is particularly important to its poorer members where every dollar saved by making local exchanges can be used to improve their material well-being in the formal economy.

Mathieu Lizotte and Gérard Duhaime Volume 15(2011) Special Issue D47-51

IJCCR 2011 Special Issue 09 Lizotte

To cite this article: Lizotte, M. and Duhaime, G. (2011) ‘L’Accorderie and Le Jardin Universel (JEU) in Quebec’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 15 (D) 47-51 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN  1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2011.020

Community Currency Progress in Latin America (Banco Palmas)

After losing its lawsuit against a community bank issuing a community currency, the Central Bank of Brazil has just started a cooperation agreement with the National Secretary for Solidarity Economy of the Labour Ministry of Brazil to support and develop the current 51 community banks and their own social currency in order to reach about 300 by 2012, becoming an exemplary model. This world premiere central bank support associated with one of the highest amount of community currency systems of Latin America brought Brazil as a significant site of experimentation in this field. Furthermore, some daring innovations seem to confirm this position in a long-term future unless this normative control of a centralized institution decreases the creativity. Indeed, sustainable economic orientation still needs creative tools, associated to an ethical vision, to decrease material consumption dependence and increase post-materialist values exchange: community currency transformation to an effective grassroots innovation for sustainability, prosperity and democracy seems to be necessary.

Christophe Place Volume 15(2011) Special Issue D39-46

IJCCR 2011 Special Issue 08 Place

To cite this article: Place, C. (2011) ‘Community Currency Progress in Latin America (Banco Palmas)’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 15 (D) 39-46 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN  1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2011.019