New article: Digital CCS in Brazil

Mumbuca e-dinheiro and the challenges of requirements, codes and data digital community currency governance

Luiz Arthur S. Faria*, Fernando G. Severo**, Henrique L. Cukierman***, Eduardo H. Diniz****

*Fundação Getúlio Vargas and Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,

** Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,

*** Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,

****Fundação Getúlio Vargas, Brazil,


This paper discusses the governance process of digital complementary currencies (DCCs). Our reflections are based on contributions from fields such as the anthropology of economy and currencies, especially from the perspective of monetary plurality and governance of commons, and also on concepts developed in the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). The research effort accompanies the material changes of the Mumbuca DCC (Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), connected to the Brazilian Network of Community Development Banks (CDBs), which has accumulated more than one hundred experiences since 1998. We use three different approaches to investigate the Mumbuca digital platform: the processes related to the requirements of the digital platforms adopted, the tensions concerning its closed architecture model and finally the currency circulation data – now digital, and relatively traceable. The paper explores the impossibility to dissociate, on the one hand, the ‘social practices’ enunciated by the communities related to the local currency proposals (and connected to the idea of money as a commons) and, on the other, the materialities present in digitalization processes. Finally, calling for a sociotechnical approach, it outlines some of the challenges faced by the CDBs Network, towards treating the DCC as a commons.


Digital community currencies; Social currencies; Commons; Governance

Article Faria et al.

To cite this article: Faria, L., Severo, F., Cukierman, H. and Diniz, E. (2020) ‘Mumbuca E-dinheiro and the challenges of a digital community currency governance: requirements, codes and data’ International Journal of Community Currency Research Volume 24 (Summer 2020) 77-88;; ISSN 1325-9547; DOI

Classifying non-bank currency systems using web data

This paper develops a new classification of non-bank currency systems based on a lexical analysis from French-language web data in order to derive an endogenous typology of monetary projects, based on how these currencies are depicted on the internet. The advantage of this method is that it by-passes problematic issues currently found in the literature to uncover a clear classification of non-bank currency systems from exogenous elements. Our textual corpus consists of 320 web pages, corresponding to 1,210 text pages. We first apply a downward hierarchical clustering method to our data, which enables us to endogenously derive five different classes and make distinctions among non-bank currency system and between these and the standard monetary system. Next, we perform a similarity analysis. Our results show that all non-bank currency systems define themselves in relation to the standard monetary system, with the exception of Local Exchange Trading Systems.

Ariane Tichit*, Clément Mathonnat*, Diego Landivar**

* Clermont University, Auvergne University, CNRS, UMR 6587, CERDI, F-63009 Clermont Fd. Email: ariane.tichit@udamail.f;; ** ESC Clermont, 63000 Clermont-Fd. Email:


non-bank money, text mining, web data, downward hierarchical clustering, similarity analysis

Article Tichit pdf

To cite this article: Tichit, A., Mathonnat, C.,  and Landivar, D. (2016) ‘Classifying non-bank currency systems using web data’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 20 (Summer) 24-40  <>  ISSN  1325-9547.

The “commodity – money – commodity” Mutual Credit Complementary Currency System. Marxian money to promote community trade and market economy

Samo Kavčič

Šercerjeva ul.26, 4240 Radovljica, Slovenia. E-mail:


The Mutual Credit Currency System, this most radical form of endogenous money, was evaluated and compared with Marx’s Commodity-Money-Commodity requirement.  A simple simulation of a small community closed loop economy was used to illustrate the functioning of two types of mutual credit currency systems. The first, dubbed MCSG, behaved according to the specifications and recommendations of the mutual credit currency system’s founding fathers, Riegel and Greco. The second, dubbed the Komoko Monetary System, or abbreviated to KMS, was a sub-type of the mutual credit currency system with some additional restrictions and one additional liberty. The main restriction introduced in the KMS was that it almost exclusively supported the exchange of only newly produced goods and services. The liberty introduced is forecast-based credit allocation. It was shown that the MCSG has an inconsistency that could potentially lead to instability. The restrictions applied within the KMS can provide a remedy for this potential flaw, while at the same time rendering the KMS compliant with Marx’s requirement. The monetary control measures applicable in KMS were discussed, which guarantee robustness and stability and make KMS a true complement to the official fractional reserve banking.


Mutual credit system  , Commodity – money – commodity, Cash flow forecast, Currency circuit,  Monetary control,  Endogenous money

Article kavcic pdf

To cite this article: International Journal of Community Currency Research 20 (Summer) 41-53. <>  ISSN  1325-9547.

Sustainability of the Argentine Complementary Currency Systems

The Redes de Trueque (RT) thrived during the economic crisis of 2001 in Argentina but fell sharply after 2002. Some networks, however, withstood the downfall better than others. These differences in the decline cannot be attributed to external factors, which were basically the same across the Trueque, but to the various governance systems that the leaders structured as the scheme grew in scale and sophistication. Following an institutionalist perspective, this article assesses the sustainability of the governance systems in the RT in relation to input legitimacy, rule enforcement, resource synergy and transaction and organisational costs. None of the governance systems structured in the Trueque in Argentina scored highly on the four accounts. The largest networks managed to be sustainable by resorting to a hierarchical structure that violates the principles of participation and self-reliance of complementary currency systems. In the other extreme, the smallest ones achieved sustainability but with a low economic impact.

Georgina M. Gómez

To cite this article: Gómez, G. (2012) ‘Sustainability of the Argentine Complementary Currency Systems: four governance systems’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 16 (D) 80-90  <> ISSN  1325-9547

IJCCR 2012 Gomez

Money and Participatory Governance: A review of the literature

This paper provides an overview and discussion of several important approaches to the governance of monetary systems in the light of the extent to which all stakeholders have full input into monetary decision-making processes.  Currency scale and various approaches to monetary governance are explored, identifying a number of key limitations with previous approaches and highlighting the need for a modified conceptual and theoretical framework for exploring the potential of small scale currency institutions to allow greater participatory monetary decision-making.

Shira Destinie Jones Vol 15(2011) A56-68

To cite this article: Jones, S.D. (2011) ‘Money and Participatory Governance: A review of the literature’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 15 (A) 56-68 <> ISSN  1325-9547

A Theoretical Framework for Shared Monetary Governance

Shared Monetary Governance builds a framework for community level governance of money and fills part of the gap in the literature of monetary governance. The approach begins with consistent treatment by national regulatory frameworks vis-à-vis both national and non- national currency institutions. Regulatory framework tolerance is measured by equating more participatory processes with higher degrees of shared governance. The second part of Shared Monetary Governance explores internal monetary institutional governance. Consistent regulatory framework treatment, transparency, accountability and participation are then applied to all stakeholders affected by monetary functionality. This juxtaposition of governance vs. scale requires investigation of the processes used to make decisions in monetary institutions. Since no such dual-paradigmatic investigation has been undertaken, this paper asserts that metrics for such an investigation need to be developed. Shared Monetary Governance includes a methodology which operationalises the theoretical framework presented in this paper, building a case for full monetary decision-making participation.

Shira Destinie A. Jones  A23-30

To cite this article: Jones, S.D. (2011) ‘A Theoretical Framework for Shared Monetary Governance’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 15 (A) 23-30 <> ISSN  1325-9547

Corporate Barter and Economic Stabilisation

Twenty-two years of data on North American corporate barter reveal strong counter-cyclical tendencies. Corporate barter changes in the same direction as wholesale inventories, but against changes in capacity utilization or gross domestic product. Standard arguments on the inefficiency of barter need to be seriously reevaluated. The findings have implications for trade and monetary policy, both domestically and internationally.

James Stodder Volume 2(1998) 1

IJCCR Vol 2 (1998) 1 Stodder

To cite this article: Stodder, J. (1998) ‘Corporate Barter and Economic Stabilisation’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 2 <> ISSN  1325-9547