Classifying non-bank currency systems using web data

This paper develops a new classification of non-bank currency systems based on a lexical analysis from French-language web data in order to derive an endogenous typology of monetary projects, based on how these currencies are depicted on the internet. The advantage of this method is that it by-passes problematic issues currently found in the literature to uncover a clear classification of non-bank currency systems from exogenous elements. Our textual corpus consists of 320 web pages, corresponding to 1,210 text pages. We first apply a downward hierarchical clustering method to our data, which enables us to endogenously derive five different classes and make distinctions among non-bank currency system and between these and the standard monetary system. Next, we perform a similarity analysis. Our results show that all non-bank currency systems define themselves in relation to the standard monetary system, with the exception of Local Exchange Trading Systems.

Ariane Tichit*, Clément Mathonnat*, Diego Landivar**

* Clermont University, Auvergne University, CNRS, UMR 6587, CERDI, F-63009 Clermont Fd. Email: ariane.tichit@udamail.f;; ** ESC Clermont, 63000 Clermont-Fd. Email:


non-bank money, text mining, web data, downward hierarchical clustering, similarity analysis

Article Tichit pdf

To cite this article: Tichit, A., Mathonnat, C.,  and Landivar, D. (2016) ‘Classifying non-bank currency systems using web data’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 20 (Summer) 24-40  <>  ISSN  1325-9547.


The “commodity – money – commodity” Mutual Credit Complementary Currency System. Marxian money to promote community trade and market economy

Samo Kavčič

Šercerjeva ul.26, 4240 Radovljica, Slovenia. E-mail:


The Mutual Credit Currency System, this most radical form of endogenous money, was evaluated and compared with Marx’s Commodity-Money-Commodity requirement.  A simple simulation of a small community closed loop economy was used to illustrate the functioning of two types of mutual credit currency systems. The first, dubbed MCSG, behaved according to the specifications and recommendations of the mutual credit currency system’s founding fathers, Riegel and Greco. The second, dubbed the Komoko Monetary System, or abbreviated to KMS, was a sub-type of the mutual credit currency system with some additional restrictions and one additional liberty. The main restriction introduced in the KMS was that it almost exclusively supported the exchange of only newly produced goods and services. The liberty introduced is forecast-based credit allocation. It was shown that the MCSG has an inconsistency that could potentially lead to instability. The restrictions applied within the KMS can provide a remedy for this potential flaw, while at the same time rendering the KMS compliant with Marx’s requirement. The monetary control measures applicable in KMS were discussed, which guarantee robustness and stability and make KMS a true complement to the official fractional reserve banking.


Mutual credit system  , Commodity – money – commodity, Cash flow forecast, Currency circuit,  Monetary control,  Endogenous money

Article kavcic pdf

To cite this article: International Journal of Community Currency Research 20 (Summer) 41-53. <>  ISSN  1325-9547.

Building trust: exploring the role of community exchange and reputation

This paper identifies trust as a current crucial challenge for sustainability. Our increased reliance on exchange, specifically where the exchange involves ambivalent trust is a further aspect of this challenge. Ambivalent trust refers here to conflict between our desire to trust others and a reticence to do so, given evidence of opportunism, particularly with regard to strangers. Negotiated exchange is proposed as necessary to account for ambivalent trust. This paper seeks to investigate the potential of addressing ambivalent trust via negotiated exchange using community exchange. Community exchange is a hybrid currency system between monetary exchange and gift exchange. This paper uses the case study of a recently commenced project in North-West Tasmania, Australia, called CENTs – Community Exchange North-West Tasmania, to analyse these dynamics. CENTs aims via a series of stages to build trust and then incorporate the concept of a reputation currency. Although in the early stages of development, to date CENTs is showing potential to build trust via the concept of community exchange, albeit on a necessarily incremental basis.

Robin Krabbe

IJCCR 2015 Krabbe

To cite this article: Krabbe, R. (2015) ‘Building trust: exploring the role of community exchange and reputation’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 19 (Summer) 62-71  <>  ISSN  1325-9547

Community-based LETSystems in Australia: Localised Barter in a Sophisticated Western Economy

Modern domestic barter systems are operating in Australia and other high income countries at the local community level, and at the national level for business exchanges. These exchange regimes appear to have become institutionalised in a macro-marketing system that is organised on the primacy of market exchange based on price as the co-ordinating device. This points to widespread imperfections in various markets at the local level, and in particular, in markets for credit and labour. In this paper, the nature of Australian community-based LETSystems is discussed and some results from a national survey in Australia of LETS members are presented. The interface between LETSystems, the federal taxation system and the social security system in Australia is introduced.

Peter W. Liesch and Dawn Birch Volume 4(2000) 2

IJCCR Vol 4 (2000) 2 Liesch and Birch

To cite this article: Liesch, P.W.; Birch, D. (2000) ‘Community-based LETSystems in Australia: Localised Barter in a Sophisticated Western Economy’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 4 <> ISSN  1325-9547

Local Economic Trading Systems: Potentials for New Communities of Meaning: a brief exploration of eight LETSystems, with a focus on decision making

A LETS can be described as a non-profit community based trading network that operates by way of a locally created currency, i.e. a locally recognised measure of exchange value as distinct from national currency. LETS’ emergence in the 1980’s, and rapid growth throughout English speaking countries in the 1990’s (Williams 1995), arguably stems from experienced scarcity of money in local communities. According to Jackson (1994), it is primarily a product of developed nations ‘where money has assumed dominance as the medium for exchange’. Considered in the context of contemporary economic developments, LETS also invites regard as localised responses to the globalisation of capital. It was with an eye to the latter, that I undertook this exploration of eight LETS groups in Victoria, Australia.

IJCCR Vol 2 (1998) 2 Ingleby

To cite this article: Ingleby, J. (1998) ‘Local Economic Trading Systems: Potentials for New Communities of Meaning: a brief exploration of eight LETSystems, with a focus on decision making’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 2 ISSN  1325-9547

Local Exchange and Trading Systems (LETS) in Australia: a new tool for community development?

Local Exchange and Trading Systems (LETS) are a form of not-for-profit community enterprise which have rapidly spread throughout the English-speaking industrialised nations during the 1990s. A LETS is a local association whose members list their offers of, and requests for, work in a directory and members then exchange this activity valued in a local unit of currency. However, little is known about them. Drawing upon the results of a questionnaire sent to all Australian LETS in April 1995, this paper evaluates their contributions to community development. Finding that LETS are to some extent rebuilding more localised economies, reconstructing local social networks and helping the unemployed engage in productive activity, recommendations are made about how these achievements could be further improved. However, and on a more cautionary note, questions are raised about not only the effectiveness of, but also the reasons for, the state’s support of LETS in Australia.

Colin C Williams Volume 1(1997) 3

IJCCR vol 1 (1997) 3 Williams

To cite this article: Williams, C. (1997) ‘Local Exchange and Trading Systems (LETS) in Australia: a new tool for community development?’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 1 <> ISSN  1325-9547