What Have Complementary Currencies in Japan Really Achieved?

Japan has been regarded from abroad as one of the most developed countries in terms of CC systems, depicted by Kennedy and Lietaer (2004) as “the country in the world with the most systems in operation today, but also the nation with the greatest diversity of such experiments.” However, this paper argues that the lack of literature about initiatives in languages other than Japanese has been a hurdle that has not allowed Western researchers to grasp the real picture.  This article’s goal is to show the historical development of CC initiatives in this East-Asian country, revealing how the very concept of having another means of exchange for communities has been transformed over years by the unique interpretations and the conceptual manipulation of Japanese promoters and practitioners.

Yasuyuki Hirota Volume 15(2011) Special Issue D22-26

IJCCR 2011 Special Issue 05 Hirota

To cite this article: Hirota, Y. (2011) ‘What Have Complementary Currencies in Japan Really Achieved?’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 15 (D) 22-26 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN  1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2011.016

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Complementary Currencies in Germany: The Regiogeld System

In several places in Germany colourful slips of paper replace the Euro as a medium of exchange. These unofficial tenders German Regiogeld, a phenomenon which occurred around 2001 and spread rapidly all over Germany. It appears not only with different names but also in various forms. The article introduces this special complementary currency. It describes briefly – and from a sociological point of view – what it is, how it has originated, the actual status quo and possible future developments. It is based on my 4 year ethnographic research which was done in the context of a sociological dissertation. For this article one of my results is particular important: Regiogeld is a phenomenon which originated in the fusing of different movements, a money-reform-oriented, an esoteric and several regionalization-oriented.

Christian Thiel Volume 15(2011) Special Issue D17-21

IJCCR 2011 Special Issue 04 Thiel

To cite this article: Thiel, C. (2011) ‘Complementary Currencies in Germany: The Regiogeld System’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 15 (D) 17-21 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN  1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2011.015