In the search for operative, sustainable and complementary currencies and the methods of applying them in the real world, many discussions have occurred over the years on the IJCCR discussion website. This article proposes a perspective from an architect’s point of view when applying the use of time based currencies to the urban habitat and environment, and to the provision of basic needs within its communities especially for those unable to afford them due to the reduced provisions by governing bodies, and the higher costs to these and/or to those willing to acquire them independently from the privatized substitutes. The challenge becomes how to make the provision of these basic human, social and urban needs equitably accessible and co-operatively plentiful for the communities as well as worthwhile and competitive for investors. Too often the existing or proposed solutions are relegated to the world of charities and NGO associations and do not become interesting to the powers-that-be except out of a sense of personal, or corporate, moral obligation or social commitment. Thus, for a time currency to serve as “money” in the purchase of these basics, three simultaneous and non-contradictory roles are demanded of it: “it must function as a means to a) measure costs, b) foment exchanges and c) record transactions.” This article tackles these issues and invites debate on the positions taken.
Stephan Hawranick Serra Volume 10(2006) A56-67
IJCCR vol 10 (2006) 6 Serra
To cite this article: Serra, S.H. (2006) ‘Establishing Time Based Community Currencies: Means of Measure, Exchange and Storage’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 10 56-67 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2006.007
The article offers an overview of local and regional exchange systems in Germany. Historic as well as present-day systems are considered. They are analysed within the context of their social environment. The paper also provides an introduction to the German literature about these systems. It will be demonstrated that practical and theoretical developments are closely interlinked.
Rolf F. H. Schroeder Volume 10(2006) A24-42
IJCCR vol 10 (2006) 4 Schroeder
To cite this article: Schroeder, R. (2006) ‘Community Exchange and Trading Systems in Germany’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 10 24-42 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2006.005
The aim of this paper is to provide a brief introduction to a proposal for a complementary currency in the education sector in Brazil. Reviewing the background, objectives, scope and approach adopted, it intention is to reveal not only how it is wholly feasible to construct complementary currencies which are targeted at specific sectors but also to open up discussion of whether and how complementary currencies might be employed in the education sector more generally.
Bernard Lietaer Volume 10(2006) A18-23
IJCCR vol 10 (2006) 3 Lietaer
To cite this article: Lietaer, B. (2006) ‘A Proposal for a Brazilian Education Complementary Currency’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 10 18-23 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2006.004
This paper analyses theoretically how the Mutual Credit System (MCS) is affected by the Commons Problem. The MCS is defined as a pure accounting system of exchange, of which the Local Exchange and Trading System is a real life example. The Commons problem is caused by the incentive of members to issue units without the intention to repay this ‘debt’. This can potentially cause an MCS to collapse. It is found that eight institutional design principles for overcoming the Commons problem can also be applied to the MCS. Moreover, the dynamic interaction of economically motivated members of the MCS is analysed. This yields the conclusion that the MCS can provide a robust and stable alternative to the Central Money Supply System, whilst preserving its important special feature of an endogenous supply of money.
Jorim Schraven Volume 5(2001) 4
IJCCR Vol 5 (2001) 4 Schraven
To cite this article: Schraven, J. (2001) ‘Mutual Credit Systems and the Commons Problem: Why Community Currency Systems such as LETS Need Not Collapse Under Opportunistic Behaviour’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 5 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2001.002
For the greater part of the history of money, we humans have used commodities as the basis of our currency systems. In 1971 the world went to a fiat currency system and the problems have increased. During the last 30 years the United States has seen a previously unheard of rate of bank failures. Since the early 70s labor wages have stagnated, corporate taxes have been shifted onto the individual, and the gap between the rich and the poor — countries and individuals — has escalated at similarly unheard of rates. This paper shows why fiat currencies are unworkable, why commodity currencies have also failed and how mutual credit systems may be the answer.
J. Walter Plinge Volume 5(2001) 1
IJCCR Vol 5 (2001) 1 Plinge
To cite this article: Plinge, J.W. (2001) ‘Commodity Currencies for Fair and Stable International Exchange Rates’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 5 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2001.005
This paper sets out to describe and analyse Local Exchange and Trading Systems (LETS) in economic terms. A LETS performs three main functions: the provision of transaction management services, credit, and market matching. LETS is an alternative form of money. A LETS is in (economic) theory attractive because: it provides cheap and flexible credit; allows the marketing of labour time in small disperse quantities without the need for an employer or capital; and, because its money function is locally contained, it can potentially alleviate some of the welfare implications of external shocks and structural interregional trade-imbalances. This feature operates through reviving local exchange of non-tradables by providing a medium of exchange. Unfortunately, current research does not provide a good basis for testing the validity of these potential functions of LETS because LETS is a heterotopia, of which the membership is neither representative of the population, nor primarily economically motivated.
Jorim Schraven Volume 4(2000) 5
IJCCR Vol 4 (2000) 5 Schraven