The Calgary Dollars complementary currency, which began in 1996, contributes to the knowledge of complementary currencies through repeated measurement of social and economic capital outcomes. This brief article provides a literature review and references some relevant government endorsements of complementary currency including the City of Calgary and the Alberta provincial complementary currency of 1936. Summaries of demographics and participants quotations are provided. Calgary research findings from 2002/2003, 2009, and 2010 are reviewed. Economic capital benefits are found to include complementary currency purchases as well as national currency and barter transactions resulting from Calgary Dollars participation. The findings suggest that both social and economic capital benefits are realized by Calgary Dollars participants and that benefits increase with the length of participation.
This paper provides an overview and discussion of several important approaches to the governance of monetary systems in the light of the extent to which all stakeholders have full input into monetary decision-making processes. Currency scale and various approaches to monetary governance are explored, identifying a number of key limitations with previous approaches and highlighting the need for a modified conceptual and theoretical framework for exploring the potential of small scale currency institutions to allow greater participatory monetary decision-making.
Shira Destinie Jones Vol 15(2011) A56-68
This article provides an analysis of the literature about community currencies. 1099 sources written in a variety of different languages form the basis of this study. Both empirical and theoretical contributions have been considered. The first step is to make explicit the composition of this database. This implies that the field of research is circumscribed; the major features of community currencies are highlighted. The subsequent analysis comprises quantitative and qualitative aspects. In their evaluation, the authors demonstrate the strengths of the research carried out so far. They also show weaknesses and possibilities for future research, and make suggestions for improvements to the infrastructure of this field of research.
Rolf F.H. Schroeder, Yoshihisa Miyazaki and Marie Fare A31-41
This paper explores the recent evolution of money and banking, in the wake of the financial crisis, and its implication for the global economy and society. In particular, the paper considers whether or not these developments are leading to a more stable and sustainable capitalist financial order. Three broad approaches to monetary reform are considered, that target usury, debt and crisis respectively, and it is concluded that the global dependence on mono-currency systems is ignored by all three. Drawing on Marx, Hayek and Lietaer it is further posited that the facilitation of currency diversity, especially in the midst of an information age, is an extremely important policy prerequisite for a future stable and sustainable capitalist system.
Simon Mouatt Volume 14(2010) A17-28
To cite this article: Mouatt, S. (2010) ‘The Case for Monetary Diversity’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 14 (A) 17-28 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2010.003
In Brazil, the National Secretariat for Solidarity Economy has encouraged the establishment of Community Development Banks that issue “social currencies for local circulation”, and has struggled to set up a regulatory framework for the use of social currencies, by means of public policies for solidarity finance, at the federal, state, and municipal levels of governments. Can social currencies be regarded as public policy instruments compatible with monetary policy under the responsibility of central banks? With the aim of systematizing this question and allowing the Central bank of Brazil to elaborate a reference study on this subject, this essay defines social currencies on the basis of constitutional precepts; identifies and examines legal and regulatory issues and logistical and operational aspects relating to social currency systems; and investigates why social currencies should be regarded as public policy instruments for local development compatible with monetary policy.
Marusa Vasconcelos Freire Volume 13(2009) A76-94
To cite this article: Freire, M.V. (2009) ‘Social Economy and Central Banks: Legal and Regulatory Issues on Social Currencies (Social Money) as a Public Policy Instrument Consistent with Monetary Policy’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 13 76-94 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2009.007
In 2007, the Dutch municipality of Landgraaf requested an investigation into whether a community currency could support its anti-poverty policies. The literature research assembled empirical data on scrip, LETS and Time Banks. Their effects were evaluated against a set of specific goals: poverty relief, provision of care, social integration and return of long-term unemployed to the labour market. Complementary currencies have still to prove themselves on all objectives, and the last one is particularly hard to achieve. However, for the most part, the systems being investigated have not been set up in a professional way or with longer-term finances available. With these prerequisites in place, and a formal, trustworthy organisation taking the initiative, a complementary currency could still be a useful policy instrument. A Time Bank-like construction would work best, with a professional broker and a limited working area.
Miranda van Kuik Volume 13(2009) A3-18
To cite this article: van Kuik, M. (2009) ‘Time for Each Other: Working Towards a Complementary Currency Model to Serve the Anti-Poverty Policies of the Municipality of Landgraaf, the Netherlands’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 13 3-18 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2009.002
This paper provides a preliminary formulation of a new currency based on knowledge. Through a literature review of alternative currencies, various properties and benefits are selected that we hope will enable such a currency to be created. Nowadays not only money but also knowledge is necessary to do business. For instance, knowledge about markets and consumers is highly valuable but difficult to achieve, and even more difficult to store, transport or trade. The basic premise of this proposal is a knowledge measurement pattern that is formulated as a new alternative social currency. Therefore, it is an additional means of contributing to the worldwide evolution of a knowledge society. It is intended as a currency to facilitate the conservation and storage of knowledge, and its organization and categorization, but mainly its exploitation and transference.
Claudia I. Carrillo F., Josep Lluis de la Rosa and Agustí Canals Volume 11(2007) A84-97
To cite this article: Carrillo, C., de la Rosa, J.L. and Canals, A. (2007) ‘Towards A Knowledge Economy’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 11 84-97 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2007.005