Community Currency Research: An analysis of the literature

This article provides an analysis of the literature about community currencies. 1099 sources written in a variety of different languages form the basis of this study. Both empirical and theoretical contributions have been considered.  The first step is to make explicit the composition of this database. This implies that the field of research is circumscribed; the major features of community currencies are highlighted. The subsequent analysis comprises quantitative and qualitative aspects. In their evaluation, the authors demonstrate the strengths of the research carried out so far. They also show weaknesses and possibilities for future research, and make suggestions for improvements to the infrastructure of this field of research.

Rolf F.H. Schroeder, Yoshihisa Miyazaki and Marie Fare  A31-41

To cite this article: Schroeder, R.; Miyazaki, Y. and Fare, M. (2011) ‘Community Currency Research: An analysis of the literature’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 15 (A) 31-41 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN  1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2011.004
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The Case for Monetary Diversity

This paper explores the recent evolution of money and banking, in the wake of the financial crisis, and its implication for the global economy and society. In particular, the paper considers whether or not these developments are leading to a more stable and sustainable capitalist financial order. Three broad approaches to monetary reform are considered, that target usury, debt and crisis respectively, and it is concluded that the global dependence on mono-currency systems is ignored by all three. Drawing on Marx, Hayek and Lietaer it is further posited that the facilitation of currency diversity, especially in the midst of an information age, is an extremely important policy prerequisite for a future stable and sustainable capitalist system.

Simon Mouatt Volume 14(2010) A17-28

IJCCRvol14(2010)A17-28Mouatt

To cite this article: Mouatt, S. (2010) ‘The Case for Monetary Diversity’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 14 (A) 17-28 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN  1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2010.003

Social Economy and Central Banks: Legal and Regulatory Issues on Social Currencies (Social Money) as a Public Policy Instrument Consistent with Monetary Policy

In Brazil, the National Secretariat for Solidarity Economy has encouraged the establishment of Community Development Banks that issue “social currencies for local circulation”, and has struggled to set up a regulatory framework for the use of social currencies, by means of public policies for solidarity finance, at the federal, state, and municipal levels of governments. Can social currencies be regarded as public policy instruments compatible with monetary policy under the responsibility of central banks? With the aim of systematizing this question and allowing the Central bank of Brazil to elaborate a reference study on this subject, this essay defines social currencies on the basis of constitutional precepts; identifies and examines legal and regulatory issues and logistical and operational aspects relating to social currency systems; and investigates why social currencies should be regarded as public policy instruments for local development compatible with monetary policy.

Marusa Vasconcelos Freire Volume 13(2009) A76-94

IJCCRvol13(2009)pp76-94Freire

To cite this article: Freire, M.V. (2009) ‘Social Economy and Central Banks: Legal and Regulatory Issues on Social Currencies (Social Money) as a Public Policy Instrument Consistent with Monetary Policy’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 13 76-94 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN  1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2009.007

Time for Each Other: Working Towards a Complementary Currency Model to Serve the Anti-Poverty Policies of the Municipality of Landgraaf, the Netherlands

In 2007, the Dutch municipality of Landgraaf requested an investigation into whether a community currency could support its anti-poverty policies. The literature research assembled empirical data on scrip, LETS and Time Banks. Their effects were evaluated against a set of specific goals: poverty relief, provision of care, social integration and return of long-term unemployed to the labour market. Complementary currencies have still to prove themselves on all objectives, and the last one is particularly hard to achieve. However, for the most part, the systems being investigated have not been set up in a professional way or with longer-term finances available. With these prerequisites in place, and a formal, trustworthy organisation taking the initiative, a complementary currency could still be a useful policy instrument. A Time Bank-like construction would work best, with a professional broker and a limited working area.

Miranda van Kuik Volume 13(2009) A3-18

IJCCRvol13(2009)pp3-18vanKuik

To cite this article: van Kuik, M. (2009) ‘Time for Each Other: Working Towards a Complementary Currency Model to Serve the Anti-Poverty Policies of the Municipality of Landgraaf, the Netherlands’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 13 3-18 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN  1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2009.002

Towards A Knowledge Economy

This paper provides a preliminary formulation of a new currency based on knowledge. Through a literature review of alternative currencies, various properties and benefits are selected that we hope will enable such a currency to be created. Nowadays not only money but also knowledge is necessary to do business. For instance, knowledge about markets and consumers is highly valuable but difficult to achieve, and even more difficult to store, transport or trade. The basic premise of this proposal is a knowledge measurement pattern that is formulated as a new alternative social currency. Therefore, it is an additional means of contributing to the worldwide evolution of a knowledge society. It is intended as a currency to facilitate the conservation and storage of knowledge, and its organization and categorization, but mainly its exploitation and transference.

Claudia I. Carrillo F., Josep Lluis de la Rosa and Agustí Canals Volume 11(2007) A84-97

IJCCR vol 11 (2007) 4 Carrillo

To cite this article: Carrillo, C., de la Rosa, J.L. and Canals, A. (2007) ‘Towards A Knowledge Economy’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 11 84-97 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN  1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2007.005

Establishing Time Based Community Currencies: Means of Measure, Exchange and Storage

In the search for operative, sustainable and complementary currencies and the methods of applying them in the real world, many discussions have occurred over the years on the IJCCR discussion website. This article proposes a perspective from an architect’s point of view when applying the use of time based currencies to the urban habitat and environment, and to the provision of basic needs within its communities especially for those unable to afford them due to the reduced provisions by governing bodies, and the higher costs to these and/or to those willing to acquire them independently from the privatized substitutes. The challenge becomes how to make the provision of these basic human, social and urban needs equitably accessible and co-operatively plentiful for the communities as well as worthwhile and competitive for investors. Too often the existing or proposed solutions are relegated to the world of charities and NGO associations and do not become interesting to the powers-that-be except out of a sense of personal, or corporate, moral obligation or social commitment. Thus, for a time currency to serve as “money” in the purchase of these basics, three simultaneous and non-contradictory roles are demanded of it: “it must function as a means to a) measure costs, b) foment exchanges and c) record transactions.” This article tackles these issues and invites debate on the positions taken.

Stephan Hawranick Serra Volume 10(2006) A56-67

IJCCR vol 10 (2006) 6 Serra

To cite this article: Serra, S.H. (2006) ‘Establishing Time Based Community Currencies: Means of Measure, Exchange and Storage’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 10 56-67 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN  1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2006.007

Community Exchange and Trading Systems in Germany

The article offers an overview of local and regional exchange systems in Germany. Historic as well as present-day systems are considered. They are analysed within the context of their social environment. The paper also provides an introduction to the German literature about these systems. It will be demonstrated that practical and theoretical developments are closely interlinked.

Rolf F. H. Schroeder Volume 10(2006) A24-42

IJCCR vol 10 (2006) 4 Schroeder

To cite this article: Schroeder, R. (2006) ‘Community Exchange and Trading Systems in Germany’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 10 24-42 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN  1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2006.005