The Case for Monetary Diversity

This paper explores the recent evolution of money and banking, in the wake of the financial crisis, and its implication for the global economy and society. In particular, the paper considers whether or not these developments are leading to a more stable and sustainable capitalist financial order. Three broad approaches to monetary reform are considered, that target usury, debt and crisis respectively, and it is concluded that the global dependence on mono-currency systems is ignored by all three. Drawing on Marx, Hayek and Lietaer it is further posited that the facilitation of currency diversity, especially in the midst of an information age, is an extremely important policy prerequisite for a future stable and sustainable capitalist system.

Simon Mouatt Volume 14(2010) A17-28


To cite this article: Mouatt, S. (2010) ‘The Case for Monetary Diversity’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 14 (A) 17-28 <> ISSN  1325-9547

Social Economy and Central Banks: Legal and Regulatory Issues on Social Currencies (Social Money) as a Public Policy Instrument Consistent with Monetary Policy

In Brazil, the National Secretariat for Solidarity Economy has encouraged the establishment of Community Development Banks that issue “social currencies for local circulation”, and has struggled to set up a regulatory framework for the use of social currencies, by means of public policies for solidarity finance, at the federal, state, and municipal levels of governments. Can social currencies be regarded as public policy instruments compatible with monetary policy under the responsibility of central banks? With the aim of systematizing this question and allowing the Central bank of Brazil to elaborate a reference study on this subject, this essay defines social currencies on the basis of constitutional precepts; identifies and examines legal and regulatory issues and logistical and operational aspects relating to social currency systems; and investigates why social currencies should be regarded as public policy instruments for local development compatible with monetary policy.

Marusa Vasconcelos Freire Volume 13(2009) A76-94


To cite this article: Freire, M.V. (2009) ‘Social Economy and Central Banks: Legal and Regulatory Issues on Social Currencies (Social Money) as a Public Policy Instrument Consistent with Monetary Policy’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 13 76-94 <> ISSN  1325-9547

Time for Each Other: Working Towards a Complementary Currency Model to Serve the Anti-Poverty Policies of the Municipality of Landgraaf, the Netherlands

In 2007, the Dutch municipality of Landgraaf requested an investigation into whether a community currency could support its anti-poverty policies. The literature research assembled empirical data on scrip, LETS and Time Banks. Their effects were evaluated against a set of specific goals: poverty relief, provision of care, social integration and return of long-term unemployed to the labour market. Complementary currencies have still to prove themselves on all objectives, and the last one is particularly hard to achieve. However, for the most part, the systems being investigated have not been set up in a professional way or with longer-term finances available. With these prerequisites in place, and a formal, trustworthy organisation taking the initiative, a complementary currency could still be a useful policy instrument. A Time Bank-like construction would work best, with a professional broker and a limited working area.

Miranda van Kuik Volume 13(2009) A3-18


To cite this article: van Kuik, M. (2009) ‘Time for Each Other: Working Towards a Complementary Currency Model to Serve the Anti-Poverty Policies of the Municipality of Landgraaf, the Netherlands’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 13 3-18 <> ISSN  1325-9547

Towards A Knowledge Economy

This paper provides a preliminary formulation of a new currency based on knowledge. Through a literature review of alternative currencies, various properties and benefits are selected that we hope will enable such a currency to be created. Nowadays not only money but also knowledge is necessary to do business. For instance, knowledge about markets and consumers is highly valuable but difficult to achieve, and even more difficult to store, transport or trade. The basic premise of this proposal is a knowledge measurement pattern that is formulated as a new alternative social currency. Therefore, it is an additional means of contributing to the worldwide evolution of a knowledge society. It is intended as a currency to facilitate the conservation and storage of knowledge, and its organization and categorization, but mainly its exploitation and transference.

Claudia I. Carrillo F., Josep Lluis de la Rosa and Agustí Canals Volume 11(2007) A84-97

IJCCR vol 11 (2007) 4 Carrillo

To cite this article: Carrillo, C., de la Rosa, J.L. and Canals, A. (2007) ‘Towards A Knowledge Economy’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 11 84-97 <> ISSN  1325-9547

Establishing Time Based Community Currencies: Means of Measure, Exchange and Storage

In the search for operative, sustainable and complementary currencies and the methods of applying them in the real world, many discussions have occurred over the years on the IJCCR discussion website. This article proposes a perspective from an architect’s point of view when applying the use of time based currencies to the urban habitat and environment, and to the provision of basic needs within its communities especially for those unable to afford them due to the reduced provisions by governing bodies, and the higher costs to these and/or to those willing to acquire them independently from the privatized substitutes. The challenge becomes how to make the provision of these basic human, social and urban needs equitably accessible and co-operatively plentiful for the communities as well as worthwhile and competitive for investors. Too often the existing or proposed solutions are relegated to the world of charities and NGO associations and do not become interesting to the powers-that-be except out of a sense of personal, or corporate, moral obligation or social commitment. Thus, for a time currency to serve as “money” in the purchase of these basics, three simultaneous and non-contradictory roles are demanded of it: “it must function as a means to a) measure costs, b) foment exchanges and c) record transactions.” This article tackles these issues and invites debate on the positions taken.

Stephan Hawranick Serra Volume 10(2006) A56-67

IJCCR vol 10 (2006) 6 Serra

To cite this article: Serra, S.H. (2006) ‘Establishing Time Based Community Currencies: Means of Measure, Exchange and Storage’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 10 56-67 <> ISSN  1325-9547

Community Exchange and Trading Systems in Germany

The article offers an overview of local and regional exchange systems in Germany. Historic as well as present-day systems are considered. They are analysed within the context of their social environment. The paper also provides an introduction to the German literature about these systems. It will be demonstrated that practical and theoretical developments are closely interlinked.

Rolf F. H. Schroeder Volume 10(2006) A24-42

IJCCR vol 10 (2006) 4 Schroeder

To cite this article: Schroeder, R. (2006) ‘Community Exchange and Trading Systems in Germany’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 10 24-42 <> ISSN  1325-9547

A Proposal for a Brazilian Education Complementary Currency

The aim of this paper is to provide a brief introduction to a proposal for a complementary currency in the education sector in Brazil. Reviewing the background, objectives, scope and approach adopted, it intention is to reveal not only how it is wholly feasible to construct complementary currencies which are targeted at specific sectors but also to open up discussion of whether and how complementary currencies might be employed in the education sector more generally.

Bernard Lietaer Volume 10(2006) A18-23

IJCCR vol 10 (2006) 3 Lietaer

To cite this article: Lietaer, B. (2006) ‘A Proposal for a Brazilian Education Complementary Currency’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 10 18-23 <> ISSN  1325-9547

Mutual Credit Systems and the Commons Problem: Why Community Currency Systems such as LETS Need Not Collapse Under Opportunistic Behaviour

This paper analyses theoretically how the Mutual Credit System (MCS) is affected by the Commons Problem. The MCS is defined as a pure accounting system of exchange, of which the Local Exchange and Trading System is a real life example. The Commons problem is caused by the incentive of members to issue units without the intention to repay this ‘debt’. This can potentially cause an MCS to collapse. It is found that eight institutional design principles for overcoming the Commons problem can also be applied to the MCS. Moreover, the dynamic interaction of economically motivated members of the MCS is analysed. This yields the conclusion that the MCS can provide a robust and stable alternative to the Central Money Supply System, whilst preserving its important special feature of an endogenous supply of money.

Jorim Schraven Volume 5(2001) 4

IJCCR Vol 5 (2001) 4 Schraven

To cite this article: Schraven, J. (2001) ‘Mutual Credit Systems and the Commons Problem: Why Community Currency Systems such as LETS Need Not Collapse Under Opportunistic Behaviour’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 5 <> ISSN  1325-9547

Commodity Currencies for Fair and Stable International Exchange Rates

For the greater part of the history of money, we humans have used commodities as the basis of our currency systems. In 1971 the world went to a fiat currency system and the problems have increased. During the last 30 years the United States has seen a previously unheard of rate of bank failures. Since the early 70s labor wages have stagnated, corporate taxes have been shifted onto the individual, and the gap between the rich and the poor — countries and individuals — has escalated at similarly unheard of rates. This paper shows why fiat currencies are unworkable, why commodity currencies have also failed and how mutual credit systems may be the answer.

J. Walter Plinge Volume 5(2001) 1

IJCCR Vol 5 (2001) 1 Plinge

To cite this article: Plinge, J.W. (2001) ‘Commodity Currencies for Fair and Stable International Exchange Rates’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 5 <> ISSN  1325-9547

The Economics of Local Exchange and Trading Systems: a Theoretical Perspective

This paper sets out to describe and analyse Local Exchange and Trading Systems (LETS) in economic terms. A LETS performs three main functions: the provision of transaction management services, credit, and market matching. LETS is an alternative form of money. A LETS is in (economic) theory attractive because: it provides cheap and flexible credit; allows the marketing of labour time in small disperse quantities without the need for an employer or capital; and, because its money function is locally contained, it can potentially alleviate some of the welfare implications of external shocks and structural interregional trade-imbalances. This feature operates through reviving local exchange of non-tradables by providing a medium of exchange. Unfortunately, current research does not provide a good basis for testing the validity of these potential functions of LETS because LETS is a heterotopia, of which the membership is neither representative of the population, nor primarily economically motivated.

Jorim Schraven Volume 4(2000) 5

IJCCR Vol 4 (2000) 5 Schraven