Japan has been regarded from abroad as one of the most developed countries in terms of CC systems, depicted by Kennedy and Lietaer (2004) as “the country in the world with the most systems in operation today, but also the nation with the greatest diversity of such experiments.” However, this paper argues that the lack of literature about initiatives in languages other than Japanese has been a hurdle that has not allowed Western researchers to grasp the real picture. This article’s goal is to show the historical development of CC initiatives in this East-Asian country, revealing how the very concept of having another means of exchange for communities has been transformed over years by the unique interpretations and the conceptual manipulation of Japanese promoters and practitioners.
Yasuyuki Hirota Volume 15(2011) Special Issue D22-26
IJCCR 2011 Special Issue 05 Hirota
To cite this article: Hirota, Y. (2011) ‘What Have Complementary Currencies in Japan Really Achieved?’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 15 (D) 22-26 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2011.016
The WAT system, as used in Japan, allows for businesses to issue their own tickets (IOUs) which can circulate as a complementary currency within a community. This paper proposes a variation on that model, where the issuer of a ticket can offer a guarantee, in the form of some goods or services. The difference in value, along with a reasonable acceptance that the issuer is capable of delivering the service or goods, allows for a higher degree of confidence in the ticket, and therefore a greater liquidity.
Mitra Ardon and Bernard Lietaer Volume 10(2006) A1-7
IJCCR vol 10 (2006) 1 Ardron and Lietaer
To cite this article: Ardon, M. and Lietaer, B. (2006) ‘Complementary Currency Innovation: Self-guarantee in peer-to-peer currencies’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 10 1-7 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2006.002
Since 1995 the number of experiments with complementary currencies in Japan has exploded. Not only is Japan the country in the world with the most systems in operation today, but also the nation with the greatest diversity of such experiments. The aim of this paper is to bring to light the strata of the heterogeneous Japanese schools of complementary currencies, and describe how they relate to each other. It provides a description of the different models used in each school, as well as their numbers and locations. Finally, the most original models are highlighted, and the relevance of these experiments for the rest of the world is evaluated.
Bernard Lietaer Volume 8(2004) 1
IJCCR vol 8 (2004) 1 Lietaer
To cite this article: Lietaer, B. (2004) ‘Complementary Currencies in Japan Today: History, Originality and Relevance’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 8 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2004.005