The article offers an overview of local and regional exchange systems in Germany. Historic as well as present-day systems are considered. They are analysed within the context of their social environment. The paper also provides an introduction to the German literature about these systems. It will be demonstrated that practical and theoretical developments are closely interlinked.
Rolf F. H. Schroeder Volume 10(2006) A24-42
IJCCR vol 10 (2006) 4 Schroeder
To cite this article: Schroeder, R. (2006) ‘Community Exchange and Trading Systems in Germany’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 10 24-42 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2006.005
Since 1995 the number of experiments with complementary currencies in Japan has exploded. Not only is Japan the country in the world with the most systems in operation today, but also the nation with the greatest diversity of such experiments. The aim of this paper is to bring to light the strata of the heterogeneous Japanese schools of complementary currencies, and describe how they relate to each other. It provides a description of the different models used in each school, as well as their numbers and locations. Finally, the most original models are highlighted, and the relevance of these experiments for the rest of the world is evaluated.
Bernard Lietaer Volume 8(2004) 1
IJCCR vol 8 (2004) 1 Lietaer
To cite this article: Lietaer, B. (2004) ‘Complementary Currencies in Japan Today: History, Originality and Relevance’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 8 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2004.005