Vol. 22 (Winter) Issue 1, pp.16-36

Understanding the diversity of CCs worldwide in globalisation and deindustrialisation as an evolutionary tree diagram

Makoto Nishibe

Senshu University, School of Economics – Email: nishibe@isc.senshu-u.ac.jp


The main purpose of the paper is to explain why vast diversity of community currencies (CCs) arise both within “developed countries” and between “developed” and “developing” countries, and to provide an evolutionary tree diagram, rather than taxonomy, of CCs that continue to vary in globalization and deindustrialization as two long-term socioeconomic tendencies since the 1970s. To accomplish the end, we explain that globalization and deindustrialization in modern capitalist economy caused various economic, social and cultural problems and CCs were introduced to solve the problems caused by the tendencies, and that such diversity of the problems brought about the diversity of CCs as solutions for them, and we presume that, according to ‘reality oriented categorization,’ such diversity of CCs is described in a tree diagram with such two underling dimensions corresponding to the two socioeconomic tendencies as: x) economic and/or social-cultural media as two basic components of CCs in globalization and y) primary and secondary and/or tertiary industry regarding deindustrialization. Thus the initial archetype of the tree diagram is identified as “industrializing- economic/complementary” CCs seen in the past developed countries and the present developing countries that evolved into three branches of CCs (“industrializing-local/territorial”, “deindustrializing-cultural/community” and “deindustrializing-economic/complementary”). Finally, we take up Banco Palmas in Brazil to examine if it can be regarded as the typical case of an industrializing-economic/complementary CC in developing countries in the tree diagram of CCs and suggest implications for CCs in the future


Community Currencies, Globalization, Deindustrialization, Diversity, Taxonomy, Tree Diagram

Article Nishibe

To cite this article:

Makoto Nishibe (2018) ‘Understanding the diversity of CCS world-wide in globalization and deindustrialization as an evolutionary tree diagram’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 2018 Volume 22 (Winter) 16-36 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547.  DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2018.003