The Diversity and Evolutionary Process of Modern Community Currencies in Japan
Yoshihisa Miyazaki* and Ken-ichi Kurita**
* National Institute of Technology, Sendai College, Miyagi, Japan, Email: email@example.com
** Kokusai Junior College, Tokyo, Japan. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
(Authors with equal contribution)
This paper focuses on the diverse development of modern community currencies (CCs) in Japan, and provides a classification of them by type. Modern CCs appeared in the early 1970s and since then various types have circulated globally. With the increase in CC practices, academic research into CCs has emerged as a growing area of interest. However, since CC systems are diverse, it is difficult to obtain a commonly recognized definition of CCs, or criteria for their classification according to their characteristics. Since this problem is shared even by international researchers, it has become an important issue in the field. In this study, we confirm the definition and classification of CCs by surveying previous studies on Japanese CCs. Furthermore, this paper reveals the reality of CC systems that continue to evolve through a process of development and decline, by looking back at their history. In order to explain the evolutionary process, we employ the concept of “countermovement,” as advocated by economic anthropologist Karl Polanyi. Based on our outcomes, we describe three stages in the evolution of CCs, which are the reciprocal realm, integration between the reciprocal and market realms, and new realms.
Community Currencies, Japan, Karl Polanyi, Countermovement
To cite this article: Yoshihisa Miyazaki and Ken-ichi Kurita (2018) ‘The diversity and evolutionary process of modern community currencies in Japan’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 2018 Volume 22 (Winter) 120-131 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2018.010