New Issue IJCCR

Dear readers

A new issue of the International Journal of Community Currency Research has been published.

You will find the table of contents here where you can download the individual papers. If you prefer to download the complete issue, you can simply click on this link to access the pdf.

We will be updating our systems this week, so you may be receiving an unusual (and annoying) number of emails. Please receive my sincere apologies for this inconvenience.

Enjoy the reading,


Dr. Georgina Gómez

Chief Editor



Georgina M. Gómez

Chief Editor

International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam,

The International Journal of Community Currency Research was founded 23 years ago, when researchers on this topic found a hard time in getting published in other peer reviewed journals. In these two decades the academic publishing industry has exploded and most papers can be published internationally with a minimal peer-review scrutiny, for a fee. Moreover, complementary currency research is not perceived as extravagant as it used to be, so it has now become possible to get published in journals with excellent reputation.

In that context, the IJCCR is still the first point of contact of practitioners and new researchers on this topic. It offers open access, free publication, and it is run on a voluntary basis by established scholars in the field. In any of the last five years, it has received about 25000 views. The figure seems minuscule in comparison with the numbers Internet has got us used to, but it shows the importance of the IJCCR as the key outlet for research on complementary currency systems. IJCCR now counts over 190 articles with research on all continents.

The IJCCR is currently under scrutiny to be listed in Scopus, so we need to keep this effort going. We invite researchers to disseminate their work through this journal and welcome articles of scientific quality that present a well-argued proposition, an explicit dialogue with theories, and the work of other scholars in the field.

The IJCCR is the main academic publication of the Research Network on Monetary Innovation and Complementary and Community Currencies (, which is still working on establishing itself as the referent organisation in the field. We hope you enjoy this new summer issue.

Read as pdf Editorial

Social representations of money: contrast between citizens and local complementary currency members

Ariane Tichit

CERDI, University of Clermont Auvergne; France;


This article analyses the social representations of money from survey data. More specifically, it tests how organizers of a complementary currency system have a distinct perception of money compared to other citizens. The main results confirm the existence of significant differences between the two groups. The structure of their representations shows that for the local currency members money is less tied to official institutions, to the symbol of the sovereign State, to labour and to wages than for the representative population segment. This confirms a number of theoretical studies that see these social innovations as forms of protest against the standard system, questioning the sovereign State currency and close to the concept of unconditional income. Local currencies, through the different social representations of money they contain, could well be drivers of societal change.


Social representations of money, Survey data, Abric method.

Article Tichit, A.

To cite this article: Tichit, A. (2019) ‘Social representations of money: contrast between citizens and local complementary currency members’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 23 Issue 2 (Summer 2019) 45-62;; ISSN 1325-9547; DOI

Key Factors for the Durability of Community Currencies: An NPO Management Perspective

Jeremy September

Tohoku University Graduate School of Economics and Management in Sendai, Japan;


This paper investigates key factors for the durability of community currencies (CCs) by conducting a comparative dual case study on two long lived CCs in Japan. CCs both in Japan and abroad have exhibited effectiveness in developing social capital however the literature reveals a lack of academic research on the management or operation of CCs. Therefore this paper aims to identify key factors for the durability of CCs that could contribute to the development of a best practices model for social entrepreneurs. A secondary purpose is to add to the English body of knowledge on Japanese CC systems. Two contrasting Japanese CC organizations that have operated for more than a decade are investigated in depth. This entailed gathering both qualitative and quantitative data from both organizations and analyzing the data within a Nonprofit Organization (NPO) management framework. The results reveal five key durability factors: creating value and utility for stakeholders, appealing to the local solidarity of businesses, the receptiveness of businesses towards CCs, partnering with a corporation or larger institution and solid organizational structure. The main implication of these factors is that successfully engaging external stakeholders is crucial to sustaining the operations of a CC organization.


Community currency, durability factors, stakeholders, best practices framework.

Article September

To cite this article: September, J. (2019) ‘Key factors for the durability of community currencies: an NPO management perspective’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 23 Issue 2 (Summer 2019) 17-34;; ISSN 1325-9547; DOI

Sidechain and volatility of cryptocurrencies based on the blockchain technology

Olivier Hueber

Université Côte d’Azur, CNRS-GREDEG; France;


A cryptocurrency market based on the blockchain technology is characterized by the coexistence of a steady-state supply and a volatile e-money’s demand. In this study a cointegration test establishes a long-run relationship between the internal demand of Bitcoins and prices. From this result, we propose to restrain the intrinsic volatility of any cryptocurrency based on the Blockchain technology by introducing a sidechain pegged to the parent chain.


Sidechain, Community currencies, Blockchain, Bitcoin, Demurrage, cryptocurrencies

Article Hueber

To cite this article: Hueber, O. (2019) ‘Sidechain and volatility of cryptocurrencies based on the blockchain technology’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 23 Issue 2 (Summer 2019) 35-44;; ISSN 1325-9547; DOI

Transforming or reproducing an unequal economy? Solidarity and inequality in a community currency

Ester Barinaga

Lund University, Sten K. Johnson Centre for Entrepreneurship at the Dept. of Business Administration, School of Economics and Management; Sweden;


Building on empirical material from 6 months ethnographically inspired fieldwork in Málaga Común, a mutual credit community currency in Southern Spain, the paper uses Ostrom’s (1991) theoretical framework on common-pool resources to look deeper into the provision and appropriation dynamics in the currency scheme. Particular attention is put into the sources of inequality in members’ provision and appropriation capacities. Findings suggest that, embedded as community currencies are in the conventional economy, the sources of inequality from the conventional economy are also brought into the community currency. More particularly, private ownership and specialised complex skills lie behind members’ unequal capacity to earn community currency in relation to their spending needs. The paper ends by outlining some elements that would need attention when designing the governance institutions of community currency schemes that aim to overcome the inequality brought in by these currencies’ embeddedness in the conventional economy.


Mutual credit currency, inequality, Ostrom, resource system vs. flow of resource units; provision/appropriation ratio, common-pool resource.

Article Barinaga

To cite this article: Barinaga, E (2019) ‘Transforming or reproducing an unequal economy? Solidarity and inequality in a community currency’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 23 Issue 2 (Summer 2019) 2-16;; ISSN 1325-9547; DOI