This article aims to explore the ways in which Community Currency Schemes (CCS), as markets, are permeated by other influential social orders, in this case that of gender. The paper therefore looks at the way in which gender structures may be reproduced or reflected in these kinds of markets and how they sometimes acquire certain features depending on the CCS in question. The paper is based on a particular case study, the Argentine experience with a CCS – known as the ‘Barter Network’ – and is structured around three main issues. The first analytical section deals with a characteristic of the Barter Network shared by many other CCS: the preponderance of female (or the scarcity of male) participants. Thus, the reasons for the gender composition of the Barter Network are examined. The second section explores the way in which, through its development, this CCS generated its own gendered structures. Hence, the dynamics of certain trade practices which imply differential returns for men and women are examined. Finally, the article considers the degree of empowerment that participation in this sphere may have implied for female participants.
Francisca Pereyra Volume 11(2007) A98-111
IJCCR vol 11 (2007) 5 Pereyra
To cite this article: Pereyra, F. (2007) ‘Exploring Gender Divisions In A Community Currency System: The Case Of The Barter Network In Argentina’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 11 98-111 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2007.006
This paper provides a preliminary formulation of a new currency based on knowledge. Through a literature review of alternative currencies, various properties and benefits are selected that we hope will enable such a currency to be created. Nowadays not only money but also knowledge is necessary to do business. For instance, knowledge about markets and consumers is highly valuable but difficult to achieve, and even more difficult to store, transport or trade. The basic premise of this proposal is a knowledge measurement pattern that is formulated as a new alternative social currency. Therefore, it is an additional means of contributing to the worldwide evolution of a knowledge society. It is intended as a currency to facilitate the conservation and storage of knowledge, and its organization and categorization, but mainly its exploitation and transference.
Claudia I. Carrillo F., Josep Lluis de la Rosa and Agustí Canals Volume 11(2007) A84-97
IJCCR vol 11 (2007) 4 Carrillo
To cite this article: Carrillo, C., de la Rosa, J.L. and Canals, A. (2007) ‘Towards A Knowledge Economy’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 11 84-97 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2007.005
Findings from a comprehensive survey of the membership of a Time Bank in the United States are reported. This system has a total of 505 individual members, 233 of whom responded to the author’s online survey (46.1% response rate). Respondents were asked 193 questions in six categories: motivations, engagement, outcomes, satisfaction, community experience, and demographics. The membership is mostly female, white, and highly educated. Incomes are found to be quite low and members are politically engaged and overwhelmingly liberal. Respondents were motivated to join largely by needs and values-based reasons. This Time Bank has been most successful in allowing participants to act on behalf of the values that they cherish and to give back to their community and help those in need. Implications of the findings are discussed and the survey instrument is provided as a potential resource.
Ed Collom Volume 11(2007) A36-83
IJCCR vol 11 (2007) 3 Collum
To cite this article: Collom, E. (2007) ‘The Motivations, Engagement, Satisfaction, Outcomes, and Demographics of Time Bank Participants: Survey Findings from a U.S. System’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 11 36-83<www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2007.004
The Worldwide Database of Complementary Currency Systems is designed to collect vital statistics on a broad variety of indicators related to the function of all types of complementary currency systems. The reason for collecting this information is to provide an accurate statistical and scientific understanding of different types of systems and identify a set of performance indicators from which to make comparisons. From this foundation of knowledge our intention is to open a communication channel that links complementary currency systems together to allow experience, information and knowledge to be exchanged, which contributes to the improvement and growth of our efforts. The information is presented in a wide variety of ways: according to the region, country and the indicators listed, in table and graph forms, using both bar and pie charts. This level of simplicity and flexibility creates a complexity that is sufficient to allow researchers to drill for information from the international level all the way down to the community level.
Stephen DeMeulenaere Volume 11(2007) B23-35
IJCCR vol 11 (2007) 2 DeMeulenaere
To cite this article: DeMeulenaere, S. (2007) ‘2006 Yearly Report of the Worldwide Database of Complementary Currency Systems’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 11 23-35 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2007.003
This study examines the rationale(s) that recipients have for participating in HOURS-based local currency loan and grant programs. Case studies, based on interviews of both loan and grant recipients and system coordinators, of Ithaca HOURS and Calgary Dollars local currency systems (LCSs) are presented here. Biggart and Delbridge’s (2004) Systems of Exchange typology, which allows for both instrumental (“means calculated”) and substantive (“ends calculated”) bases of rational economic action, provides the theoretical framework for this study. Insight into the rationales that individuals have for seeking a loan or grant can aid HOURS-based LCS coordinators in the development and promotion of these programs. This study also introduces local currency loans and grants to the social science community while demonstrating the applicability of Biggart and Delbridge’s (2004) typology to an understanding of LCSs and similar economic exchange networks characterized by both instrumental and substantive rationales.
Jeff Mascornick Volume 11(2007) A1-22
IJCCR vol 11 (2007) 1 Mascornick
To cite this article: Mascornick, J. (2007) ‘Local Currency Loans and Grants: Comparative Case Studies of Ithaca HOURS and Calgary Dollars’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 11 1-22 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2007.002
Colin C Williams Volume 11(2007) 0
IJCCR vol 11 (2007) 0 Editorial
To cite this article: Williams, C. (2007) ‘Editorial 2007 (volume 11)’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 11 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547 http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2007.001