New article on Eusko (France)

The Eusko’s trajectory. Hypotheses to understand the success of the complementary local currency of the Northern Basque Country

Dante Edme-Sanjurjo*, Mathilde Fois-Duclerc**, Yannick Lung***, Julien Milanesi**** and Fabienne Pinos*****

Euskal Moneta, Bayonne, France. eusko.dante@yahoo.fr

** Centre Emile Durkheim, UMR 5116 CNRS Sciences Po Bordeaux & MSHA, Bordeaux, France. mathilde.foisduclerc@gmail.com

*** GREThA, UMR 5113 CNRS Université de Bordeaux & Crisalidh, MSHA, Bordeaux, France. lung@u-bordeaux.fr

**** CERTOP, UMR 5044 CNRS Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, France. julien.milanesi@iut-tlse3.fr

***** Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour, Bayonne, France. fabienne.pinos@iutbayonne.univ-pau.fr

Abstract

Launched in January 2013, the Eusko (complementary local currency of the Northern Basque Country in France) became the first local currency in Europe five years later, with the equivalent of more than one million euros in circulation, surpassing the Chiemgauer in Germany and the Bristol Pound in England. This paper aims to explain the development of this complementary local currency and to formulate hypotheses about the factors for its success. Part 1 gives a statistical overview of the Eusko’s trajectory, analysing the distribution of this currency in its chronological and spatial dimensions. Part 2 focuses on the specificity of the territorial context, which is characterized by a high density of the associative and cooperative movements. Part 3 details the mobilizing organizational devices that contribute to the Eusko’s success.

Keywords

Basque country, complementary local currency, digitalization, Eusko, France.

Article Edme-Sanjurjo et al.

To cite this article: Edme-Sanjurjo, D., Fois-Duclerc, M., Lung, Y., Milanesi, J. and Pinos F. (2020) ‘The Eusko’s trajectory. Hypotheses to understand the success of the complementary local currency of the Northern Basque Country’ International Journal of Community Currency Research Volume 24 (Summer 2020) 14-29http://www.ijccr.net; ISSN 1325-9547; DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2020.009

First RAMICS Award paper

How could blockchain be a key resource in the value creation process of a local currency? A case study centered on Eusko

Fabienne Pinos*

* IUT de Bayonne et du Pays Basque, Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour, Bayonne, France. fabienne.pinos@univ-pau.fr

Abstract

Blockchain is seen as a major financial innovation for the years to come; it interests financial industry as well as some local currencies. Thus, it seems appropriate to analyze how Blockchain could be a key resource in the value creation process of a local currency. Our article aims first to analyze the potential contributions of Blockchain for local currencies. Then, we compare these contributions to the key resources and activities identified in the study of the value creation process of Eusko, the first European currency in circulation since the end of 2018. Launched in June 2011, managed by the association Euskal Moneta (EM), this initiative aims at creating value that can be considered as public value (Moore, 1995). We use the canvas of Osterwalder & al. (2011) to identify the key resources and activities of EM’s business model and explore how blockchain technology might or might not support them. We show that several factors can slow or even preclude the adoption of such a technology in an innovative context that solicits, in various forms, the adaptive capacities of project stakeholders. Through this case study, we wish to contribute to develop knowledge about economic models of local currencies.

Keywords

Local currency, blockchain, value creation, trust, transition.

Article Pinos

To cite this article: Pinos, F. (2020) ‘How could blockchain be a key resource in the value creation process of a local currency? A case study centered on eusko’ International Journal of Community Currency Research Volume 24 (Summer 2020) 1-13; http://www.ijccr.net; ISSN 1325-9547; DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2020.008

New CCS idea for debate

Volume 24, 1 – Winter (2020), pp. 61-74

The Financing of Investments in Long-term Assets and the Inverse Maturity of Deposits in the Commodity-Money-Commodity Type of Mutual Credit

Samo Kavčič*

*Independent author, Radovjica, Slovenia – Email: samo.kavcic@dobrava.net

Abstract

This paper focuses on the financing of investments in long-term assets in the Commodity-Money-Commodity (komoko) monetary system (KMS). The KMS is a special, currently still theoretical version of mutual credit, first introduced in the 2016 summer issue of the IJCCR journal. In dealing with capital goods financial circulation is indispensable. However, financial circulation is prone to speculation, a practice not at all endorsed by CC (complementary and community currencies) communities. Separation of the real and financial exchange circles introduced in the original KMS paper is a method by which community currencies can dispense with speculation and other forms of potentially harmful financial circulation. Separation of the real and financial exchange circles proposed by the original KMS paper is based on a rigid, rule-based barrier between the real economy – which produces new goods and services on one side, and the financial economy – which deals with the exchange of old durable and capital goods on the other. This separation method may, however, be potentially either too cumbersome for businesses or too easy to evade. An improved method of separation of the exchange circles is proposed which basically eliminates the elements of the rule-based barrier and substitutes it with a new feature called inverse maturity of deposits. To implement inverse maturity of deposits, the KMS evolves from a plain ledger-based currency into a form that resembles accounts payables and accounts receivables. This new form of KMS which tracks the maturity of credits (demand deposits) puts the KMS in stark contrast to the existing fractional reserve banking which tracks the maturity of loans i.e. debits. The paper discloses how the KMS, featuring inverse maturity of deposits, dispenses with excessive financial circulation without impeding the real circulation and at the same time supports the use, exchange and production of capital goods. This renders KMS a currency that can crowd out legal tender.

Keywords

Mutual Credit, Finance and Investment, Velocity of Money, Inverse Maturity, Liquidity

Article Kavčič

To cite this article: Kavčič, S (2020) ‘The financing of investments in long-term assets and the inverse maturity of deposits in the commodity-money-commodity type of mutual credit’ International Journal of Community Currency Research Volume 24 (Winter 2020) 61-73; http://www.ijccr.net; ISSN 1325-9547; DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2020.005

 

 

New article on theoretical typology of CCS

Volume 24, 1 – Winter (2020), pp. 45-60

A Conceptual framework for classifying currencies

Louis Larue UCLouvain, Belgium, louis.larue@uclouvain.be; Place Montesquieu 3, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium

Abstract

An impressive variety of new forms of money has aroused in recent decades from various groups of people and various kinds of institutions. These currencies are at the heart of intense debates, which raise important, but often neglected, normative issues. The diversity of their goals, uses and characteristics is so large that it makes some preliminary distinctions necessary. This paper aims at providing a proper background for the discussion of the possible merits and drawbacks of different kinds of currencies. It proposes a classification that demarcates currencies according to how they relate to several crucial normative issues. Its aim is to show, for every type of currency, and as unambiguously as possible, to which side of these controversies it lies.

Keywords

Money, alternative currencies, typologies, classification. Article Larue To cite this article: Larue, L (2020) ‘A conceptual framework for classifying currencies’ International Journal of Community Currency Research Volume 24 (Winter 2020) 45-60; http://www.ijccr.net; ISSN 1325-9547; DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2020.004

New article on conceptualising money

Volume 24, 1 – Winter (2020), pp. 30-44

Image, value and belief: assessing money through Simondon

Diego Viana FFLCH-USP, Rua Girassol, 554, 183, São Paulo-SP Brasil, vianadeoliveira@gmail.com

Abstract

Regarding money, the theme of belief is usually formulated in terms of belief in money. The same is true of trust, as well the value of money. One should also raise the question of trust, belief and value through money, or given its presence. This suggestion is inspired by the philosophy of Gilbert Simondon, whose theory of psychic and collective individuation aims at overcoming the dichotomy between methodological individualism and a sociology of vast categories. Simondon’s theory has three aspects that could inform the research on money. Firstly, the philosopher raises the question of how groups are constituted: they subsist by the same process that gives birth to individual personalities. A group is defined by the categories it mobilizes, and most importantly, that it produces while constituting itself. Secondly, Simondon underscores the inventive aspect of this emergence of groups, an invention analogous to technical invention, one that redraws the potentials at work in the collective: it can be those of the territory, of the bodies, or of the minds. This inventive character prolongs these potentials as structures, and this is what the collective is all about. Finally, Simondon develops a theory of the “image cycle” that can help us understand the continuity between this indefinite and infinite field of potentials, the typical categorization of groups, and the formation of images and objects (technical, sacred, aesthetic), which crystalize desires, beliefs and hopes of individuals as members of groups. These aspects clarify our wish to alter the way the questions regarding money are enounced, as well as that of the affects it mobilizes and informs. Since money manifests itself in its operation, as image or object, it can be considered to stem from the simondonian image cycle, giving sense to groups and mobilizing potentials, desires and beliefs. We explore and explicit the differences implied by this approach, underscoring Simondon’s contributions to social thought. Money is a privileged object for the application of Simondon’s thought, because of its plasticity, the vastness of the domains in which it operates, and the magnitude of forces it mobilizes.

Keywords

Image, group, belief, value, Simondon, interpretation Article Viana To cite this article: Viana, D.  (2020) ‘Image, value and belief: Assessing money through Simondon’ International Journal of Community Currency Research Volume 24 (Winter 2020) 30-44; http://www.ijccr.net; ISSN 1325-9547; DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2020.003

New article on CCS in France

Volume 24, 1 – Winter (2020), pp. 11-29

Toward spatial analyses of local currencies: the case of France

Jérôme Blanc * and Csaba Lakócai **

* University of Lyon, Sciences Po Lyon, UMR Triangle, Lyon (France). Email: jerome.blanc@sciencespo-lyon.fr

** University of Pécs, Doctoral School of Regional Policy and Economics (Hungary); Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Regional Studies. Email: lakocai.csaba@ktk.pte.hu; lakocai.csaba@rkk.hu

Abstract

This paper suggests that studies on local currencies (LCs) should engage in spatial analyses, as far as their territorial distribution is highly heterogeneous. It provides a statistical overview of the territorial features of LCs functioning in France, wherein their number has increased solidly and remarkably fast over the last decade. However, there is a huge variety in their extent, and their development has not been spatially even, especially with regards to the administrative subdivision of the country in departments (counties or departments that correspond to the NUTS-3 level of regions according to the administrative territorial classification of the EU). This uneven distribution let us presume that it is interrelated with different territorial conditions, which motivated our research. We build a size index of LCs and provide a cluster presentation of them as of 2018. A departmental territorial breakdown of data shows statistically significant spatial concentrations of LCs in France. We then provide insights into the reasons for such concentrations.

Keywords

Local currencies, France, territorial distribution, spatial statistics, size index.

Article Blanc Lakocai

To cite this article: Blanc, J. and Lakócai, C. (2020) ‘Toward spatial analyses of local currencies: The case of France’ International Journal of Community Currency Research Volume 24 (Winter 2020) 11-29; http://www.ijccr.net; ISSN 1325-9547; DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2020.002

New article on CC in Japan

Volume 24, 1 – Winter (2020), pp. 1-10

Historical transition of community currencies in Japan

Shigeto Kobayashi*, Yoshihisa Miyazaki** and Masayuki Yoshida***

* Sapporo City University, Japan. Email: s.kobayashi@scu.ac.jp

** National Institute of Technology, Sendai College, Japan. Email: frontier-spirit-21-y.m@nifty.com

*** Joetsu University of Education, Japan. Email: yoshida@juen.ac.jp

Abstract

This study investigates the historical transition of diversifying community currencies (CCs) in Japan. We searched for papers, reports, newspaper articles, and websites about Japanese CCs to acquire all available information on CCs issued in Japan. We classify the types of CCs by purpose and examine their development process by organizing the purposes, issuing forms, and starting year for each CC.

Our survey results show that 792 CCs were issued in Japan. The largest number of CCs was 130 issued in 2002. New CCs have gradually decreased since 2002, and approximately 15-20 CCs were issued annually since 2008. The purpose of issuing CCs also changed; CCs aiming to “create connections among people” were the most frequent, though this changed in 2002 to “revitalizing the regional economy.” The number of issued CCs to “create connections among people” was in third place in 2011, while “promoting resource recycling” was second.

To classify CCs in Japan, we conduct a cluster analysis using sample scores obtained by Hayashi’s quantification method type III as a dependent variable for the issuing purpose. Many CCs issued in the first half of 2000 belonged to Cluster 4, “formation of people’s connection and regional economic revitalization;” however, those issued in recent years belonged to Cluster 3, “forestry and regional economic revitalization.” Although the number of new CCs decreased drastically in the past 15 years, CCs are clearly evolving as a tool for solving social problems with changing issuing purposes.

Keywords

Classification, cluster analysis, issuing purposes, issuing forms, Japanese CCs.

Article Kobayashi et al.

To cite this article: Kobayashi, S, Miyazaki, Y and Yoshida, M (2020) ‘Historical transition of community currencies in Japan’ International Journal of Community Currency Research Volume 24 (Winter 2020) 1-10; http://www.ijccr.net; ISSN 1325-9547; DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2020.001

Social representations of money: contrast between citizens and local complementary currency members

Ariane Tichit

CERDI, University of Clermont Auvergne; France; Ariane.Tichit@uca.fr

Abstract

This article analyses the social representations of money from survey data. More specifically, it tests how organizers of a complementary currency system have a distinct perception of money compared to other citizens. The main results confirm the existence of significant differences between the two groups. The structure of their representations shows that for the local currency members money is less tied to official institutions, to the symbol of the sovereign State, to labour and to wages than for the representative population segment. This confirms a number of theoretical studies that see these social innovations as forms of protest against the standard system, questioning the sovereign State currency and close to the concept of unconditional income. Local currencies, through the different social representations of money they contain, could well be drivers of societal change.

Keywords

Social representations of money, Survey data, Abric method.

Article Tichit, A.

To cite this article: Tichit, A. (2019) ‘Social representations of money: contrast between citizens and local complementary currency members’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 23 Issue 2 (Summer 2019) 45-62; http://www.ijccr.net; ISSN 1325-9547; DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2019.013

A new type of money for a Mayan community to build resilience in a context of economic crisis

Ranulfo Paiva Sobrinho1, Claudia Maricusa Agraz Hernández2, Karla Vanessa Córdoba Brenes3, Juan Osti Sáenz2, Ademar Ribeiro Romeiro4

1Researcher at the Institute of Economics in the Campinas State University. Cidade Universitária “Zeferino Vaz” Barão Geraldo – Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil. CEP: 13083-970. Telefonista – PABX: 55 19 3521-2121. Co-founder of Sustainability.School

2Instituto EPOMEX, Universidad Autónoma de Campeche, Av. Agustín Melgar s/n entre Juan de la Barrera y Calle 20, Col. Buenavista, A.P. 24039 San Francisco de Campeche, Campeche, México. Teléfono (52) 981 8119800 ext. 62309. Fax ext. 62399.

3Co-founder of Sustainability.School. http://www.sustainability.school

4Researcher at the Institute of Economics in the Campinas State University. Cidade Universitária “Zeferino Vaz” Barão Geraldo – Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil. CEP: 13083-970. Telefonista – PABX: 55 19 3521-2121.

ABSTRACT

We present the proposal of a complementary currency, the Sodziles, to strength the local economy and social ties among the members of the Mayan community of Sodzil (Campeche, Mexico) that work in a mangrove restoration project. This project is important both for the conservation of mangroves and for the social and economic dynamics of Sodzil community. The Sodziles are backed by the restored mangrove ecosystem. We describe key local environmental, social and economic aspects, as well as the macroeconomic context within which the project is developing, specifically, the credit expansion and level of indebtedness in the various sectors of the country, and especially in Campeche State, where the restoration project is in process. From there, it was possible to identify that Mexico is close to a strong economic recession due to the high level of indebtedness of the sectors of its economy. The occurrence of this crisis may affect government funds to finance the restoration project, as well as economic activities such as construction works on which some of the Mayan descendants depend. There is no crisis yet, but it is important to consider the Sodziles as an option in case this crisis happens and also to ensure that the recovered mangroves are protected.

Article Ranulfo et al.pdf

To cite this article: Ranulfo Paiva Sobrinho et al. (2017) ‘A new type of money for a Mayan community to build resilience in a context of economic crisis’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 2017 Volume 21 (Summer) 85-97 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2017.010

Let’s change: a critical study of the aims and practices of a local exchange trading scheme

Arianna Bove

School of Business and Management, Queen Mary University of London Francis Bancroft Building, Room 3.44a. Mile End Road, E1 4NS London, United Kingdom. Phone: +44 (0)20 7882 8412 Email: a.bove@qmul.ac.uk

ABSTRACT

The paper presents the findings of ethnographic research and a survey of a Local Exchange Trading Scheme in North-East London and asks the question of whether the scheme delivers on the aims and objectives of its members. The research found that whilst its members express a strong politically motivated desire for an alternative to the prevailing economic system, the LETS scheme falls short of delivering on those ambitions. The findings raise the question of whether there is anything intrinsic to this form of local community currency that leads it to be more inclusive, egalitarian and fair.

Article Bove.pdf

To cite this article: Arianna Bove (2017) ‘Let’s change: a critical study of the aims and practices of a local exchange trading scheme’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 2017 Volume 21 (Summer) 65-83 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2017.009

Which characteristics of communities boost time-banking? A case study of the United States

Katerina Gawthorpe

University of Economics, Prague, W. Churchill Sq. 4, 130 67 Prague 3, Czech Republic, Email: xzimk04@vse.cz

This paper empirically examines the characteristics of communities with successful time banking schemes. Dataset for this study consists of 909 counties in the U.S, 314 of these counties employ a time-banking currency. The selected factors in this study are captured by 13 variables that affect the number of exchanged hours, namely income inequality, social security, unemployment rate, a set of poverty and income variables and various industry composition indicators. This paper aims to statistically model which specific characteristics of local communities significantly impact the number of hours exchanged. The research especially focuses on the factors of inequality and poverty. The hypothesis tests the assumption that an increase in hours exchanged corresponds to higher income inequality, higher unemployment density, and social-security benefits to constituents. The outcome of the model partially contradicts this hypothesis. The findings indicate a higher portion of impoverished, low-income families as well as an increase in the income inequality variable to negatively affect the number of hours exchanged. Oppositely, in line with previous literature, the result of the model supports joblessness and social security as positive indicators and reveals retail-trade as a significant factor for the successful operation of a time bank. More thorough examination of such findings discloses reasons behind such patterns. A suitable policy is proposed in the end of this paper.

Article Gawthorpe

To cite this article: Katerina Gawthorpe (2017) ‘Which characteristics of communities boost time-banking? Case study of the United States’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 2017 Volume 21 (Summer) 51-64 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2017.008

Sharing is caring: Mediterranean time banking in a multidimensional crisis scenario

Lucía del Moral-Espín

Universidad Pablo Olavide, Seville (Spain) ldelesp@upo.es

Time banks (TB) have spread all over Europe as part of a wider expansion of alternative economic spaces. Much of the existing literature has focused on UK and US time banking models, while TBs in other regions have been overlooked. This article contributes to a feminist understanding of time banking in a crisis context and, specifically, analyses possible particularities of Mediterranean TBs on the basis of case studies from Emilia Romagna (Italy) and Andalucia (Spain). The article describes the methodology and introduces the perspectives of Feminist economics before outlining the origins and development of time banking initiatives in both countries. The second section explores the history and characteristics of the selected TBs, presenting details of their objectives, member motivations and exchanges. The discussion analyses the contributions of Feminist economics to the understanding of time banking, and the conclusion provides a summary of the most important ideas.

Article del Moral.pdf

To cite this article: Lucía del Moral-Espín (2017) ‘Sharing is Caring: Mediterranean Time Banking in a Multidimensional Crisis Scenario’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 2017 Volume 21 (Summer) 33-50 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2017.007

What is the potential for community currencies to deliver positive public health outcomes? Case study of Time Credits in Wisbech, Cambridgeshire, UK

Gemma Burgess

University of Cambridge, Department of Land Economy, Cambridge Centre for Housing and Planning Research, 19 Silver Street, Cambridge, CB3 9EP, Glb36@cam.ac.uk

There is evidence that increased levels of community engagement and social participation can improve population health. Community currencies such as Time Credits are one way to support and encourage people to be more involved in their local community. As a result, they have attracted investment by local governments in the UK, with the hope of finding new ways to work with deprived communities, improve individual outcomes that lead to better health, and reduce the use of public services at a time of financial austerity.

The aim of this research was to evaluate the health related outcomes of volunteering through Time Credits in Wisbech, Cambridgeshire. The conceptual model developed during the research shows how Time Credits were expected to influence some of the social determinants of health and, by doing so, enhance health outcomes and reduce health inequalities. This in depth empirical study shows the potential of such activity to support pathways to better health, but equally demonstrates the challenges in quantifying such outcomes and in evidencing any reduction in the use of public services as a result.

Article Burgess

To cite this article: Gemma Burgess (2017) ‘What is the potential for community currencies to deliver positive public health outcomes? Case study of Time Credits in Wisbech, Cambridgeshire, UK’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 2017 Volume 21 (Summer) 19-32 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2017.006

The bright and the dark side of virtual currencies

Milenko Josavac

Harderstrasse 35, 3800 Interlaken, Switzerland. E-Mail: m.josavac@gmail.com

The scope of this article is to examine the positive (bright) and negative (dark) aspects of virtual currencies by critically assessing the relevant literature. In addition, the findings from the bright and dark side are the groundwork for the discussion of how crime prevention units and financial supervisors addressed to specific issues with virtual money. On the bright side, virtual currencies can provide a reasonable level of privacy but are not fully anonymous. Second, the academic discussion about the price stability of Bitcoins is split into two opposing groups. Critics find that the decentralised feature of virtual currencies is a significant disadvantage of the technology because it seriously reduces the flexibility to respond to economic shocks. In contrast, supporters argue that centralised operations by monetary authorities are actually inducting financial instability. Third, virtual currencies charge in overall less fees for payments and achieve similar processing speed compared to electronic payment systems. On the dark side, virtual currencies mainly operate outside the banking system and do not endanger the global financial stability at this stage of development. Second, technical improvements in the technology could increase consumer protection similar to established payment services. Finally, the lack of physical contact provides more options for money laundering and tax evasion than traditional ways do. In conclusion, the global legislation is still hesitant to implement a robust regulatory framework. As such, the effect of the recent legislation by crime prevention units and financial supervisors remains toothless.

Article Josavac.pdf

To cite this article: Milenko Josavac (2017) ‘The Bright and the Dark Side of Virtual Currencies. Recent Development in Regulatory Framework’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 2017 Volume 21 (Summer) 1-18 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2017.005

Using Simulation and Gaming to Design a Community Currency System

Masayuki Yoshida* and Shigeto Kobayashi**

* Joetsu University of Education, Japan, Email: yoshida@juen.ac.jp

** Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Japan Email: s-kobaya@jaist.ac.jp

(Authors with equal contribution)

We position gaming and simulation as one method for designing a community currency (CC) that matches the local customs and institutions at the introductory stage and discuss the effects of this method by analysing the results of the attempts made so far. In order to learn the CC system and to promote common understanding among different stakeholders, we made The Community Currency Game (CCG). We implemented the gaming to the residents who were planning to introduce a CC into their town. In the gaming, participants’ attitudes towards the diversity of money were positively affected and they began to recognize that the social network created by CC is important to the region. We found that through the virtual use of a CC in gaming, it is possible to share knowledge of participants’ perception of the CC and their resulting behaviours and utilize this knowledge to discuss a fundamental aspect of the CC and its design. We constructed a computer simulation model based on CCG to identify the factors that promote the circulation of CC. We found that the purchase rates of the area within town increased within three parameters: the premium rate of CC, the proportion of the CC in salaries, and the probability of volunteers with CC. As residents began to offer discounts according to the premium rate of the CC, shop evaluations inside the area increased. Therefore, this policy stimulates the local economy. However, the cost of the CC issue increased owing to the premium. On the other hand, policies in which the resident agents’ salaries were paid with CC and volunteers were paid by residents with CC are sustainable. These policies do not directly stimulate purchases inside the town. However, the purchase rate of the area within town gradually increases with the ratio of the CC in salaries. Moreover, the probability of volunteers increases according to habitual use of CC, community-oriented values, and the balance of CC. In this study, we found that simulation is an excellent method of presenting specific scenarios for a CC design based on the discussion in the gaming. Within the cooperative relationship between community residents and researchers, a method utilizing both gaming and simulation can be effective in designing a CC in the introductory stage, which until now, has been carried out on an ad hoc basis.

This paper focuses on the diverse development of modern community currencies (CCs) in Japan and provides a classification of them by type. Modern CCs appeared in the early 1970s and since then various types have circulated globally. With the increase in CC practices, academic research into CCs has emerged as a growing area of interest. However, since CC systems are diverse, it is difficult to obtain a commonly recognized definition of CCs, or criteria for their classification according to their characteristics. Since this problem is shared even by international researchers, it has become an important issue in the field. In this study, we confirm the definition and classification of CCs by surveying previous studies on Japanese CCs. Furthermore, this paper reveals the reality of CC systems that continue to evolve through a process of development and decline, by looking back at their history. In order to explain the evolutionary process, we employ the concept of “countermovement,” as advocated by economic anthropologist Karl Polanyi. Based on our outcomes, we describe three stages in the evolution of CCs, which are the reciprocal realm, integration between the reciprocal and market realms, and new realms.

Article Yoshida & Kobayashi

To cite this article: Masayuki Yoshida and Shigeto Kobayashi (2018) ‘Using Simulation and Gaming to Design a Community Currency System’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 2018 Volume 22 (Winter) 132-144 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2018.011


The Diversity and Evolutionary Process of Modern Community Currencies in Japan

Yoshihisa Miyazaki* and Ken-ichi Kurita**

* National Institute of Technology, Sendai College, Miyagi, Japan, Email: frontier-spirit-21-y.m@nifty.com

** Kokusai Junior College, Tokyo, Japan. Email: kuririne@nifty.com

(Authors with equal contribution)

This paper focuses on the diverse development of modern community currencies (CCs) in Japan, and provides a classification of them by type. Modern CCs appeared in the early 1970s and since then various types have circulated globally. With the increase in CC practices, academic research into CCs has emerged as a growing area of interest. However, since CC systems are diverse, it is difficult to obtain a commonly recognized definition of CCs, or criteria for their classification according to their characteristics. Since this problem is shared even by international researchers, it has become an important issue in the field. In this study, we confirm the definition and classification of CCs by surveying previous studies on Japanese CCs. Furthermore, this paper reveals the reality of CC systems that continue to evolve through a process of development and decline, by looking back at their history. In order to explain the evolutionary process, we employ the concept of “countermovement,” as advocated by economic anthropologist Karl Polanyi. Based on our outcomes, we describe three stages in the evolution of CCs, which are the reciprocal realm, integration between the reciprocal and market realms, and new realms.

Article Miyazaki and Kurita

To cite this article:  Yoshihisa Miyazaki and Ken-ichi Kurita (2018) ‘The diversity and evolutionary process of modern community currencies in Japan’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 2018 Volume 22 (Winter) 120-131 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2018.010

Implementation of modern barter exchange system in Bulgaria: From an objective necessity to an objective performance

Rositsa Toncheva

University of National and World Economy, Bulgaria, Email: r@toncheva.comhttp://www.toncheva.com

This paper presents the results from an expert survey on the possibility of a modern barter exchange system (MBES) to be implemented in Bulgaria. MBES is shown as an abstract theoretical construction which helps uncover the reasons why such schemes are successful in a number of countries with different social and cultural characteristics, while in Bulgaria this phenomenon is not popular. Sadly, the results show that there is no readiness for participation in MBES. It is seen mainly as a social structure but the expectations are that it would work as a business entity. The research has found that the idea behind MBES is inapplicable under certain conditions, such as those in Bulgaria with its typical characteristics of today. Even though the MBES models are usually successful in other countries, this is probably due to the fact that those are mostly socially mature (homogenous) societies in countries with a well-developed economic infrastructure. The survey is framed by the logic of the questionaries’ boundaries and the interviewed actors.

Article Toncheva

To cite this article: Rositsa Toncheva (2018) ‘Implementation of a Modern Barter Exchange System in Bulgaria: from an objective necessity to an objective performance’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 2018 Volume 22 (Winter) 103-119 <www.ijccr.net>ISSN 1325-9547. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2018.009

Assessing Local Mutual Credit as a Socioeconomic Tool for Farmers in New York State’s Hudson Valley

Andrew Bonanno

University of Georgia Department of Anthropology, Email: avb86893@uga.edu

Thousands of local mutual credit networks and other complementary currency systems have been developed worldwide in the last several decades. Many of these systems strive to support local economic activities such as small-scale agriculture. Although mutual credit systems and similar schemes have had significant social and economic impacts under certain conditions, they often fail to meet participants’ goals.  Nevertheless, new mutual credit systems continue to emerge. This paper analyzes the complete transactional history of one such system—the Hudson Valley Current (HVC)—from March 1, 2014, to February 28, 2015. Building on existing community currency metrics, a transaction performance ratio is introduced to understand credit flow within the HVC. Network linkage densities are also calculated to gauge potential for social capital creation. While the HVC has not been used as a significant means of exchange for farmers, metrics indicate that the HVC is a generally viable source of mutual credit and social linkage creation for some participants, at least in the short-run. Continued application of these metrics by mutual credit administrators, combined with purposeful partnerships with local farmers, might allow any potential benefits of system participation to be maintained and extended to include local farmers in a significant way.

Article Bonanno

To cite this article: Andrew Bonanno (2018) ‘Assessing Local Mutual Credit as a Socioeconomic Tool for Farmers’ in New York State’s Hudson Valley’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 2018 Volume 22 (Winter) 89-102 <www.ijccr.net>ISSN 1325-9547. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2018.008

Impact assessment method: sustainability with existing frameworks and integral approach

Christophe Place

Haute École de Gestion de Genève – Geneva – Switzerland, Email : christophe.place@gmail.com

Implementation of monetary innovation for social innovation network development may be appropriate as a reliable exchange and an incentive system for community value co-creation between stakeholders and sustainable regional development. Nevertheless, some questions remain: (1) What context and objective favour the implementation of monetary innovation? (2) How to enhance and evaluate the impacts of such innovations? To contribute to these research questions, a synthesis of 4 reference currency evaluation studies and 3 assessment frameworks standards, such as Sustainable Development Goals, Impact Reporting and Investment Standards and Global Reporting Initiative, will allow us to not only improve a previous impact assessment method of 71 indicators, by integrating an integral approach categorization, but also to qualitatively assess a recently launched currency, the Léman case study, as a first impetus with 34 indicators. Beyond policy intervention, networks of individuals and organisations may integrate an impact assessment method with an integral approach and continuous improvement process, to reach economic, social, environmental, governance and cultural impacts to evaluate the interest of supporting such initiatives. Further research is needed to develop this impact assessment framework, especially a bottom-up methodology.

Article C. Place

To cite this article: Christophe Place (2018) ‘Impact assessment of monetary innovation: sustainability with existing frameworks and integral approach’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 2018 Volume 22 (Winter) 74-88 <www.ijccr.net. ISSN 1325-9547. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2018.007

Contrasted cases. Successes and failures of local currency schemes in France since 2010

Jérôme Blanc* and Marie Fare**

* Université de Lyon / Sciences Po Lyon, Triangle

** Université de Lyon / Université Lumière Lyon 2, Triangle

This text contemplates the difficulties of French local currencies and the pathways to improvement, in the event of greater sustainability at the local level. After a panorama of the French local currencies, and the observation of a disappointment from a quantity viewpoint, the paper discusses requirements and improvements for a local currency (LC) to contribute to a greater sustainability at the local level. It presents the notion of the relevant territory for a local currency. It then discusses a few crucial points of improvement and the difficulties they face: the role of local governments as major partners; the need for employees in order to constitute a permanent basis for the scheme’s activity and development; the need for an digital counterpart of the currency; the need for financing activities. The conditions for a ripple effect are eventually discussed.

Article Blanc and Fare

To cite this article: Jérôme Blanc and Marie Fare (2018) ‘Pathways to Improvement. Successes and Difficulties of Local Currency Schemes in France since 2010’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 2018 Volume 22 (Winter) 60-73 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2018.006