Understanding the diversity of CCs worldwide in globalization and deindustrialisation as an evolutionary tree diagram

Makoto Nishibe

Senshu University, School of Economics – Email: nishibe@isc.senshu-u.ac.jp

The main purpose of the paper is to explain why vast diversity of community currencies (CCs) arise both within “developed countries” and between “developed” and “developing” countries, and to provide an evolutionary tree diagram, rather than taxonomy, of CCs that continue to vary in globalization and deindustrialization as two long-term socioeconomic tendencies since the 1970s. To accomplish the end, we explain that globalization and deindustrialization in modern capitalist economy caused various economic, social and cultural problems and CCs were introduced to solve the problems caused by the tendencies, and that such diversity of the problems brought about the diversity of CCs as solutions for them, and we presume that, according to ‘reality oriented categorization,’ such diversity of CCs is described in a tree diagram with such two underling dimensions corresponding to the two socioeconomic tendencies as: x) economic and/or social-cultural media as two basic components of CCs in globalization and y) primary and secondary and/or tertiary industry regarding deindustrialization. Thus the initial archetype of the tree diagram is identified as “industrializing- economic/complementary” CCs seen in the past developed countries and the present developing countries that evolved into three branches of CCs (“industrializing-local/territorial”, “deindustrializing-cultural/community” and “deindustrializing-economic/complementary”). Finally, we take up Banco Palmas in Brazil to examine if it can be regarded as the typical case of an industrializing-economic/complementary CC in developing countries in the tree diagram of CCs and suggest implications for CCs in the future.

Article Nishibe

To cite this article:

Makoto Nishibe (2018) ‘Understanding the diversity of CCS world-wide in globalization and deindustrialization as an evolutionary tree diagram’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 2018 Volume 22 (Winter) 16-36 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547.  DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2018.003

Complementary currencies and the financing of investments in long-term assets

Rolf F.H. Schroeder

Independent author, Bremen, Germany.  rolfschroeder.h@t-online.de. www.rolf-f-h-schroeder.de

Article Schroeder

The question raised in this article is whether the focus on “money”, as the key concept in the analysis of community or complementary currencies, is justified. The investigation shows that the economies which facilitate exchange with alternative currencies are also based on “capital.” In some cases, capital is created within a community or complementary currencies; in others, synergies exist between the alternative currencies and other ways of financing long-term assets like microfinancing schemes. In order to better understand the grey zones between these different spheres an all-encompassing use of the notion of “money” should be avoided.

To cite this article: Rolf E.F. Schroeder (2018) ‘Complementary Currencies and the Financing of Investments in Long-term Assets’ International Journal of Community Currency Research2018 Volume 22 (Winter) 4-14 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2018.002

Identifying barriers and solutions to adoption of social, complementary and/or virtual currencies

Clara Inés Peña de Carrillo*, Josep Lluís de la Rosa i Esteva**, Paulo Nicolás Carrillo Peña**, Peter Pharow***

* Universidad Autónoma de Bucaramanga, Bucaramanga, Colombia. Email: cpena212@unab.edu.co

** Universitat de Girona, Arlab research group, Girona, Spain

*** Fraunhofer IDMT, Ilmenau, Germany

With the advent of social and mobile networks, new online communities are being created around sustainable topics (e.g. environmental, social, community development). The phenomena, known as digital social innovation, generates a positive ecosystem where business and social development enabled with new behaviors boosted by social, complementary or community currencies deployed as virtual currencies have a great potential for competitiveness, and entrepreneurship, but also for fostering social responsibility in Europe. This document summarizes actions carried out through the Vircoin2SME European community project (social, complementary or community virtual currencies transfer of knowledge to SME: a new era for competitiveness and entrepreneurship) for identification of barriers and their possible solutions to reduce them in the context of the adoption of social, complementary and virtual currencies by SMEs and consumers. The Case Study method allowed identifying these barriers almost at all on the basis of RES (digital currency of Belgium) and Eurakos (virtual currency of Girona, Spain) complementary currencies operation by which the Vircoin2SME researchers had close contact. Data analyzed were taken through observation, being the project researchers’ direct users of these currencies and, the information records stored in databases concerning the users’ interactions (transactions in trades associated with the RES and Eurakos networks). This research was supported by the European Union’s Framework Programme for Research and Innovation Horizon 2020 (2014-2020) under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Grant Agreement No. 654767.

Article Peña de Carrillo et al

To cite this article: Peña de Carrillo, Clara; de la Rosa i Esteva, Josep Lluís; Carrillo Peña, Paulo Nicolás and Pharow, Peter (2018) ‘Identification of barriers and solutions for adoption of social, complementary and/or virtual currencies” International Journal of Community Currency Research 2018 Volume 22 (Summer) 125-140 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2018.020

Sustainability of local complementary currencies: conclusions from an empirical study in Poland

Grzegorz Sobiecki

SGH Warsaw School of Economics, Poland; gsobie@sgh.waw.pl

This paper draws out key conclusions from a research project – a pilot empirical study on local complementary currencies (exchange systems). The study comprised 15 interviews with coordinators representing 13 existing alternative currency systems in Poland out of 20 identified. The research was conducted between February and April 2017. The main goal of the study was empirical determination of the factors involved in the rise and fall of alternative currencies systems in Poland and conditions for their survival – that is, sustainability factors. The author demonstrated that, among examined system, two are performing better than the others, and they meet the efficiency conditions: they have a relatively high and stable or growing number of active members and exchanges, and they are constantly developed without reporting any substantial problems. Despite many differences, they have much in common. The analysis of the two examples in comparison with other systems enabled forming a list of sustainability factors and suggestions for the coordinators or initiators concerning how and what to do and what to avoid to make the system more sustainable.

Article Sobiecki

To cite this article: Sobiecki, Grzegorz (2018) ‘Sustainability of local complementary currencies – Conclusions from an empirical study in Poland’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 2018 Volume 22 (Summer) 105-124 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2018.019

Swiss currency systems: atlas, compendium and chronicle of legal aspects

Christophe Place*, Antonin Calderon, James Stodder and Isidor Wallimann

* Haute École de Gestion de Genève, Geneva, Switzerland. Email : cp@christopheplace.com

Switzerland has not only the oldest and biggest modern complementary currency in the world, the WIR created in 1934, among 40’000 organizations with a velocity of 1.3 in 2017, representing 0.17% of the Gross Domestic Product at current prices and 0.08% of the global money supply, but also the second cross-border complementary currency in the world and the first local currency using blockchain technology in Switzerland, the Léman, created in September 2015 in a Swiss-French conurbation, with 160’000 units in circulation among a network of 550 organizations and 4’000 users in May 2018. Moreover, with about 49 community currencies and 15 complementary currencies in January 2018 and a cryptocurrency cluster called Crypto Valley funded in January 2017, Switzerland counts among reference case studies in the virtual, community and complementary currency systems domain. Nevertheless, some questions remain: (1) How is the partition of these currencies in term of geographical region, system type and digital software? (2) What the recent Léman case study taught us in term of strategic implementation? (3) Could a Swiss Currency Confederation facilitate their legal conformity? To contribute to these research questions, a literature review, a data analysis, and a research survey will allow us not only to overview the Swiss and the Greater Geneva currency systems, but also evaluate their legal framework evolution.

Article Place et al

To cite this article: Place, Christophe; Calderon, Antonin; Stodder, James and Wallimann, Isidor (2018) ‘Swiss currency systems: atlas, compendium and chronicle of legal aspects’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 2018 Volume 22 (Summer) 85-104 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2018.018

Extending blockchain technology to host customizable and interoperable community currencies

Gustav R.B. Friis and Florian Glaser

* Brainbot Technologies AG, Mainz

** Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe

The goal of this paper is to propose an open platform for secure and interoperable virtual community currencies. We follow the established information systems design-science approach to develop a prototype that aims to combine best practices for building mutual-credit community currencies with the unique features of blockchain technology. The result is a specification of an open Internet platform that enables users to join and to host customized community currencies. The hosted currencies can be classified as credit-based future type of money with decentralized issuance. Furthermore, we describe how the transparency, security and interoperability properties of blockchain technology offer a solution to the inherent problems of existing, centrally operated community currency software. The characteristics of the prototype and its ability to fulfil the design-objectives are examined by a relative evaluation against existing payment and currency systems like Bitcoin, LETS and M-Pesa.

Article Friis Glaser

To cite this article: Friis, G. and Glaser, F. (2018) ‘Extending Blockchain Technology to host Customizable and Interoperable Community Currencies’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 2018 Volume 22 (Summer) 71-84 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2018.017

A digital community bank: mapping negotiation mechanisms in its consolidation as an alternative to commercial banks

Eurídice Gomes da Silva Hernandes*, Erica Souza Siqueira**, Eduardo Henrique Diniz**, Marlei Pozzebon***

* EAESP/ Fundação Getúlio Vargas, Brasil. Email: euridicehernandes@gmail.com

** EAESP/ Fundação Getúlio Vargas, Brazil. 

*** HEC Montréal; Canada & EAESP/ Fundação Getúlio Vargas; Brazil


This paper aims to map the negotiation mechanisms used by Banco Palmas in order to make Palmas Digital possible as a community digital bank in the Conjunto Palmeiras’ neighbourhood, state of Ceará, Brazil. Palmas Digital represents an alternative way to offer financial services in a network of community banks that was enabled by a digital payment platform called e-Dinheiro. Using a multilevel framework model proposed in Pozzebon & Diniz (2012), we seek to understand the interplay between different actors and technological artefacts in order to understand the “technology-in-practice”, concept defined by Orlikowski (2000). The multilevel framework model was built to understand social consequences of information and communication technologies (ICT) interactions at a community level.

Article Gomes da Silva et al

To cite this article: Gomes da Silva Hernandes, E., E. Souza Siqueira, E. Henrique Diniz, M. Pozzebon (2018) ‘A digital community bank: mapping negotiation mechanisms in its consolidation as an alternative to commercial banks’ International Journal of Community Currency Research 2018 Volume 22 (Summer) 56-70 <www.ijccr.net> ISSN 1325-9547. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.15133/j.ijccr.2018.016